Week 1Timeline of the Reconstruction Era (1865 – 77)1865The Civil War ends. Lincoln is assassinated. The 13th Amendment is ratified prohibiting slavery. Presidential Reconstruction begins1866The “Black Codes” are passed by the legislators of the former Confederate States. Congress passes the Civil Rights Act, conferring citizenship on African Americans and granting them equal rights to whites. The Ku Klux Klan is formed in Tennessee. 1867The beginning of Congressional (or Radical) Reconstruction.1868 The 14th Amendment is ratified, defining citizenship and overturns the Dred Scotdecision. Impeachment and trial of Andrew Johnson.1870The 15th Amendment is ratified. Prevents anyone from being denied the right to vote on the basis of race, color or previous condition of servitude. 1871 Klan Act1873 Economic depression begins. Colfax Massacre1875 Civil Rights Act of 1875 passed.1876U.S. vs Cruikshank decision by the Supreme Court1877A deal is made with southern democratic leaders which made Rutherford B. Hayes president in exchange for the termination of federal troop protection of black voters in the South. This is the end of Reconstruction and the triumph of Redemption.Reconstruction: Terms1.Andrew Johnson- 17thpresident, April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869 succeeded Lincoln. -Unpopular among Republican radicals who believed his Reconstruction plans were too lenient.-Tried for impeachment 1868, then preceded by Ulysses S. Grant.2.Presidential Reconstruction- Andrew Johnson’s moderate plan for Reconstruction, giving southern governments control of reconstructionwhich led to the implementation of the Black Codes.3.Black Codes-laws passed by southern governments setting rights of former slaves. -Violated free labor principles.4.Radical Republicans- called for re-establishment of new southern governments, also advocating for black men voting rights.5.Radical or Congressional Reconstruction – Republicans of Congress who believed blacks should hold the same rights, including voting as whites. They were in favor of completely restructuring southern governments.6.13th, 14th, 15thAmendmentsto the Constitutiona.13th Abolishment of slavery, however vaguely defined in law the essence of freedom.b.14thAll people born in the United States are citizens, have equal protection under the lawc.15th Ratified 1870- prohibited governments discrimination against citizen’s right to vote based on race.7.Sharecropping- labor system in Cotton/Tobacco Belt (Virginia/N. Carolina). -Allowed black families to rent plot of plantation, where harvested crops would be split between worker and owner. –-Became oppressive system with no economic growth available.