4 Emerging Critiques_ International Development [INTD 200].pdf

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International Development [INTD 200] Part IV : Emerging Critiques [28/01/2019] Post-Development Discourse Keywords Post-development Discursive hegemony of development A fantasy of the Third World False representation Orientalism Development Bankruptcy Cultural imperialism (Escobar) Anti-politics machine (Ferguson) Alternatives to development Development as "fantasy" of the 3rd world? Main arguments by post-development thinkers - Assumption - Exclusion - Top down - Paternalistic - Discursive hegemony - Sustained power relations. The paradigm shift in the 90s: mentioned in last lecture - Human development (economics) - Cultural paradigm -especially relevant when discussing the development of the NICS (East Asian countries, e.g. Singapore, Taiwan). - Post-development discourse (anthropologists)
Otto Escobar-one of the major critics of development - Book: Encountering development : - "Development is a dream turned into a nightmare" -dream regarding modernization/ development - "Development is a historically produced discourse that created a space in which only certain discourse could be said and even imagined" -only certain ideas are permitted, e.g. neoliberalism is seen as a kind of discursive hegemony. - Powerful countries maintain their unequal power relations through "development" - Hegemony of development actors James Ferguson - Anthropologist, wrote about development in Lesotho. Looked at the relationship between development actors and local recipients. Talked about a few main things - Discursive dominance - Imagination (invention) - Biases/ false representation: discrepancy between what is written in the World Bank’s country profile and the reality. - Lesotho is descripted as a traditional, subsistence society isolated from modernization and the market. This is extremely outdated- the idea of development actors constructing a fantasy - Why? Considered easier for donors to understand - Appealing to the donor. Prioritization of the donor's interests. - So that goals and budgets can be justified. - Construction of a "simple, clear" and "fundable" development project. - Construction of "others"-problematizes the notion of "us" (developed countries) and "others" (from developing countries" and discussed the power relation that exists in between.

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