International Development [INTD 200] Part IV : Emerging Critiques [28/01/2019] Post-Development Discourse Keywords ●Post-development ●Discursive hegemony of development ●A fantasy of the Third World ●False representation ●Orientalism ●Development Bankruptcy ●Cultural imperialism (Escobar) ●Anti-politics machine (Ferguson) ●Alternatives to development Development as "fantasy" of the 3rd world? Main arguments by post-development thinkers - Assumption - Exclusion - Top down - Paternalistic - Discursive hegemony - Sustained power relations. The paradigm shift in the 90s: mentioned in last lecture -Human development (economics) -Cultural paradigm -especially relevant when discussing the development of the NICS (East Asian countries, e.g. Singapore, Taiwan). -Post-development discourse (anthropologists)
●Otto Escobar-one of the major critics of development -Book:Encountering development: -"Development is a dream turned into a nightmare" -dream regarding modernization/ development -"Development is a historically produced discourse that created a space in which only certain discourse could be said and even imagined" -only certain ideas are permitted, e.g. neoliberalism is seen as a kind of discursive hegemony. -Powerful countries maintain their unequal power relations through "development" -Hegemony of development actors James Ferguson -Anthropologist, wrote about development in Lesotho. Looked at the relationship between development actors and local recipients. Talked about a few main things -Discursive dominance -Imagination (invention) -Biases/ false representation: discrepancy between what is written in the World Bank’s country profile and the reality. -Lesotho is descripted as a traditional, subsistence society isolated from modernization and the market. This is extremely outdated-the idea of development actors constructing a fantasy -Why? Considered easier for donors to understand -Appealing to the donor. Prioritization of the donor's interests. -So that goals and budgets can be justified. -Construction of a "simple, clear" and "fundable" development project. -Construction of "others"-problematizes the notion of "us" (developed countries) and "others" (from developing countries" and discussed the power relation that exists in between.