Biology IB Option A_ Neurobiology and Behaviour.pdf - Option A Neurobiology and Behaviour Neurulation ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Humans are in the

Biology IB Option A_ Neurobiology and Behaviour.pdf -...

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Option A: Neurobiology and Behaviour Neurulation Humans are in the phylum Chordata All animals in Chordata develop a dorsal nerve cord at an early stage in their development Neurulation - the process of developing a dorsal nerve cord, occurs during the first month of life in humans The dorsal nerve cord develops from ectoderm An area of ectoderm cells develop differently from the rest, this area becomes the neural plate Cells in the neural plate change shape, plate folds inwards Neural plate separates from the rest of the ectoderm and forms the neural tube, which develops into the nerve cord Diagrams show how neurulation takes place in Xenopus (African clawed frog) because they have transparent embryos Spina Bifida In vertebrates, there are bones called vertebrae Each vertebrae has a strong centrum that provides support and a thinner vertebral arch, which protects the spinal cord Centrum develops on a ventral side of the neural tube at an early stage Tissues migrate from both sides of the centrum around the neural tube and meet up to form the vertebral arch Spina bifida - when the two parts of the arch never become properly fused together, leaving a gap Caused by neural tube not closing up completely when it is formed Spina bifida is most common in the lower back Using Animal Models Neuroscience - a branch of biology concerned with neurons and nervous systems Neuroscientists - aim to understand and develop treatments for diseases of the nervous system Research into other animal species is easier because the development of the nervous system is more rapid, less complex, and easier to observe Some animals that are used often are Caenorhabditis elegans (flatworm) Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) Danio rerio (zebrafish) Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) Mus musculus (mouse) Development of Neurons Cell division in the neural tube produces a large number of cells that differentiate into neurons
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Some immature neurons migrate from where they are produced to a final location Axons grow out from each immature neuron Multiple synapses - when axons produce connections with other neurons Neural pruning - a process of removing entire neurons that are not being used Development of the CNS (Central Nervous System) The nervous system has two main parts The peripheral nervous system consisting of nerves and sensory receptors The central nervous system consisting of the spinal cord and brain
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