CV.3.082907 - How research demonstrates that physical...

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1 How research demonstrates that physical activity reduces CVD Outline Different types of research Examples that demonstrate reduction CVD Scientific mechanisms for association of activity with reduction of CVD Question of the day… HOW does physical activity reduce risk of CVD? Types of research used to make these connections between ex & health Epidemiological research (observational) Cross sectional Retrospective Prospective B Clinical trials (interventions) -analysis Epidemiology-C sectional Study various characteristics of a large population at time point Do certain factors predict who has disease or risk factor? e.g. inactive people were more likely to have low HDL cholesterol Epidemiology- R Identify a group of people who developed particular disease Question them about their , habits, etc to find predictors e.g. People with lung cancer– how many smoked? What was their diet? etc. Epidemiology- Prospective Study a large group of apparently healthy people over long period of time Make various measurements and/or have complete questionnaires When some develop diseases/conditions can determine what characteristics predicted this e.g. Nurse’s Health Study, Health Professional Study, Framingham Study
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2 Introduce term- to understand how research results expressed in epidemiology R Risk- risk of developing a disease compared to a reference group (also called ratio”) Usually assign lowest risk group the risk of __ and express risk of the other groups as a decimal of 1 (or as % of 100) (sometimes they assign highest risk group 1…and expressed relative to that) e.g. Relative Risk of 1.5 means that that group has 1.5 fold the risk of the reference group; 0.5 means half the risk Example…. Does inflammation (serum CRP) predict who will have MI? Measure serum CRP in large population, determine who gets heart attack, are they related? Inflammation: CRP and Risk of Future MI in Apparently Healthy Men Ridker PM et al. 1997 1 Relative Risk of MI P = 0.03 Quartile of hs-CRP 2 3 4 P < 0.001 P < 0.001 Some limitations of observational research -- Can suggest associations but cannot prove -- May suffer from poor (e.g. diet
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