Book Notes-Chapter 4 - Chapter 1 Worlds Collide Europe...

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Chapter 1- Worlds Collide: Europe, Africa, and AmericaSunday, August 19, 200710:08 PM1450-1620Native American Societies 1.The First Americans a.Believed to be migrants from Asiab.Bering Straitc.Lived as hunter-gatherers 2.The Mayas and the Aztecs h.Clans:a group of related people that share a real or legendary common ancestor 3.The Indians of the North 1.Present-day Ohio2.Materialistic3.Increased food supplya.Domesticated plantsb.Organized themselves in large villagesc.Set up a trading network4.Collapsed around 400e.The Southwestern Peoples and Environmental Decline1.Second complex culture among the Pueblos2.Hohokams: along the border of Arizona, used irrigation, pottery, platform mounds for worship, lived in pueblos 3. Mogollon: developed distinctive black-on-white pottery, New Mexico
4.Anasazi: Ancestral Pueblo, built residential-ceremonial villages in steep cliffsf.Mississippian Culture1.Last northern large-scale culture to emerge2.Maize and beans3.Largest city: Cahokia4.1350: rapid decline, overburdened the environment5.Hernán de Soto invaded in 1540's, found Apalachee and Timucuag.The Eastern Woodland Peoples1.Matrilineal system:social identity and property descend through a female line2.Centered on agriculture Europe Encounters Africa and the Americas, 1450-15501.European Agricultural Societya.Most Europeans were peasantsb.Most trade was localc.Yeomen: owned enough land to support families in comfortd.The Seasonal Cycle and the Peasant's Lot1.Life was fashioned around the seasons (fall harvest, summer break, spring shearing)2.Lived a hungry and malnourished lifestyle where crime was rampant2.Hierarchy and Authoritya.Monarchs ruled and local nobles controlled vast tracts of landb.Nobles challenged authority with military and legislative influencec.Women were to submit to men1.Dower: the use of one-third of the family's land and goods during the women's lifetime(received when widowed)d.Primogeniture: father bestowed most of the land to the eldest son and the others were left to seek shelter among the rest of the poor

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