Book Notes-Chapter 4 - Chapter 1 Worlds Collide Europe...

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Chapter 1- Worlds Collide: Europe, Africa, and America Sunday, August 19, 2007 10:08 PM 1450-1620 Native American Societies 1. The First Americans a. Believed to be migrants from Asia b. Bering Strait c. Lived as hunter-gatherers 2. The Mayas and the Aztecs a. Mesoamerica, began around 700 B.C. among the Olmecs b. By 300 A.D.- 20,000 people lived in Tikal (Mayans) c. Mayans developed hieroglyphic writings d. In 800 Mayan civilizations began to dwindle e. Second major city: Teotihua an, eventually the Aztecs made a more ć extensive empire f. Tenochtitlán, Mexico City (Aztecs) g. By 1500 metropolis h. Clans: a group of related people that share a real or legendary common ancestor 3. The Indians of the North 1. Present-day Ohio 2. Materialistic 3. Increased food supply a. Domesticated plants b. Organized themselves in large villages c. Set up a trading network 4. Collapsed around 400 e. The Southwestern Peoples and Environmental Decline 1. Second complex culture among the Pueblos 2. Hohokams: along the border of Arizona, used irrigation, pottery, platform mounds for worship, lived in pueblos 3. Mogollon: developed distinctive black-on-white pottery, New Mexico
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4. Anasazi: Ancestral Pueblo, built residential-ceremonial villages in steep cliffs f. Mississippian Culture 1. Last northern large-scale culture to emerge 2. Maize and beans 3. Largest city: Cahokia 4. 1350: rapid decline, overburdened the environment 5. Hernán de Soto invaded in 1540's, found Apalachee and Timucua g. The Eastern Woodland Peoples 1. Matrilineal system: social identity and property descend through a female line 2. Centered on agriculture Europe Encounters Africa and the Americas, 1450-1550 1. European Agricultural Society 1. Life was fashioned around the seasons (fall harvest, summer break, spring shearing) 2. Lived a hungry and malnourished lifestyle where crime was rampant 2. Hierarchy and Authority a. Monarchs ruled and local nobles controlled vast tracts of land b. Nobles challenged authority with military and legislative influence c. Women were to submit to men 1. Dower : the use of one-third of the family's land and goods during the women's lifetime(received when widowed) d. Primogeniture : father bestowed most of the land to the eldest son and the others were left to seek shelter among the rest of the poor
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