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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1- Worlds Collide: Europe, Africa, and America Sunday, August 19, 2007 10:08 PM 1450-1620 Native American Societies 1. The First Americans a. Believed to be migrants from Asia b. Bering Strait c. Lived as hunter-gatherers 2. The Mayas and the Aztecs a. Mesoamerica, began around 700 B.C. among the Olmecs b. By 300 A.D.- 20,000 people lived in Tikal (Mayans) c. Mayans developed hieroglyphic writings d. In 800 Mayan civilizations began to dwindle e. Second major city: Teotihua an, eventually the Aztecs made a more extensive empire f. Tenochtitln, Mexico City (Aztecs) g. By 1500 metropolis h. Clans: a group of related people that share a real or legendary common ancestor 3. The Indians of the North a. Societies North of Rio Grande were less complex/coercive b. Individual ownership of land was unknown c. Marriage within a tribe was banned d. The Hopewell Culture 1. Present-day Ohio 2. Materialistic 3. Increased food supply a. Domesticated plants b. Organized themselves in large villages c. Set up a trading network 4. Collapsed around 400 e. The Southwestern Peoples and Environmental Decline 1. Second complex culture among the Pueblos 2. Hohokams: along the border of Arizona, used irrigation, pottery, platform mounds for worship, lived in pueblos 3. Mogollon: developed distinctive black-on-white pottery, New Mexico 4. Anasazi: Ancestral Pueblo, built residential-ceremonial villages in steep cliffs f. Mississippian Culture 1. Last northern large-scale culture to emerge 2. Maize and beans 3. Largest city: Cahokia 4. 1350: rapid decline, overburdened the environment 5. Hernn de Soto invaded in 1540's, found Apalachee and Tim ucua g. The Eastern Woodland Peoples 1. Mat rilineal system: social identity and property descend through a female line 2. Centered on agriculture Europe Encounters Africa and the Americas, 1450-1550 1. European Agricultural Society a. Most Europeans were peasants b. Most trade was local c. Yeomen : owned enough land to support families in comfort d. The Seasonal Cycle and the Peasant's Lot 1. Life was fashioned around the seasons (fall harvest, summer break, spring shearing) 2. Lived a hungry and malnourished lifestyle where crime was rampant 2. Hierarchy and Authority a. Monarchs ruled and local nobles controlled vast tracts of land b. Nobles challenged authority with military and legislative influence c. Women were to submit to men 1. Dower : the use of one-third of the family's land and goods during the women's lifetime(received when widowed) d. Primogeniture : father bestowed most of the land to the eldest son and the others were left to seek shelter among the rest of the poor 3. The Power of Religion a. Roman Catholic Church b. Every village had a church c. Most Europeans were pagans (animists) d....
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