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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6- Making War and Republican Governments Sunday, September 23, 2007 9:30 PM 1776-1789 The Trials of War, 1776-1778 I. War in the North i. Many Englishmen doubted the strength of the Americans ii. Britain 1. had access to the South Atlantic System and emerging Industrial Revolution's resources 2. Paid for the most powerful navy in the world, as well as many (48K) Britons and Hessian (German) soldiers 3. Experienced officer corps 4. Loyalty of many Americans and Indian tribes iii. America 1. Economically and militarily weak 2. No strong central government iv. Britain's prime minister (Lord North) assembled a large invasion force under General William Howe 1. Ordered Howe to capture NYC and the Hudson River 2. Did this as the Second Continental Congress was declaring independence in Philadelphia 3. Defeated the Americans in the Battle of Long Island and they retreated to Manhattan island v. Christmas of 1776 Washington led his troops across the Delaware River and staged a surprise attack on Trenton, NJ and forced the surrender of 1K German soldiers vi. Early January 1777 the Continental army won a small victory at Princeton II. Armies and Strategies i. Howe (British) hoped for a political compromise and did not wasnt to destroy the Continental army ii. Congress promised Washington 75K, barely reached a third of that number 1. Yeomen wanted to plant and harvest 2. General William Smallwood's from Maryland were poor and young or old foreign men a. Enlisted for the $20 and 100 acres 3. "Camp followers" were women who followed and cared for the troops III. Victory at Saratoga i. Howe's failure to achieve a quick victory dismayed Lord North and Lord George Germain (colonial secretary) ii. Isolation of New England was still Britain's primary goal 1. Germain planned a three-pronged attack converging on Albany, NY a. Burgoyne to led a large group of British regulars from Quebec to Albany 2. Howe had a different plan, he wanted to attack Continental Congress in Philadelphia and set it in motion a. Plan worked quite well but the continental congress fled into the interior 3. Burgoyne was bogged down in Saratoga, Patriots swarmed them, October 1777 Burgoyne surrendered 4. Turning point in the war, Patriots captured 5K soldiers and their equipment IV. Social and Financial Perils i. British naval blockade had cut supplies of European manufactures and disrupted the New England fishing industry ii. British occupation of Boston, NY and Philadelphia had reduced domestic trade and manufacturing iii. Government officials requisitioned military supplies directly from the people iv. Women and Household Production...
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