Book Notes- Chapter 5

Book Notes- Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Toward Independence Years...

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Chapter 5- Toward Independence: Years of Decision Sunday, September 16, 2007 11:47 PM 1763-1776 Imperial Reform, 1763-1765 I. The Legacy of War i. War changed the British-American relationship ii. Disputes over Trade and Troops 1. War exposed weakness of royal governors 2. Revenue Act of 1762 passed by Parliament to strengthen imperial gov't a. Tightened up collection of trade duties b. Royal Navy seized American ships carrying supplies from America to French West Indies 3. King George III wanted military commands for his friends 4. Possible rebellion by 60,000 French Canadians 5. Native Americans also a concern (Pontiac's Rebellion) iii. The National Debt 1. 133 million pounds in 1763 (British debt) due to war 2. Lord Bute needed to raise taxes a. Taxed the poor in England (aristocrats had too much influence to tax) 3. Doubled size of the tax bureaucracy 4. Radical Whigs and Country Party complained that the war debt placed the treasury in the mercy of banks and financiers 5. John Wilkes (Radical Whig) called for and end to rotten boroughs (small electoral districts whose voters were controlled by aristocrats and merchants) II. George Grenville: Imperial Reformer i. Member of parliament since 1741 ii. Prime minister 1763 iii. Set out to reform the imperial system with a two part plan 1. Currency Act of 1764 (extended ban on paper money in New England and all American colonies) iv. The Sugar Act and Colonial Rights 1. Sugar Act of 1764, replaced Molasses Act of 1733
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2. America is none too pleased, many made their fortuned off smuggled molasses v. Constitutional Objections 1. "contrary to fundamental principles of the constitution" 2. Merchants prosecuted under the act would be tried w/o a jury by a vice-admiralty court (British appointed judge) 3. Revived American fear of British control 4. Americans were second class subjects of the king with rights limited by Navigation Acts III. An Open Challenge: The Stamp Act i. Sparked the first great imperial crisis ii. Requires stamps on all court documents, land titles, contracts, playing cards, newspapers and other printed items iii. Had one in England, backed by Parliament and threatened to pose one on the colonies unless they paid for their own defense iv. Franklin suggested that colonies should be part of Legislature if they were to tax them v. British politicians thought Franklin to be too radical vi. British politicians maintained that the colonies had virtual representation in Parliament via sugar planters and Atlantic trade merchants vii. Parliament passed the Stamp Act and the Quartering Act (required colonies to provide for British troops) The Dynamics of Rebellion, 1765-1770 I. Politicians Protest and the Crowd Rebels i. May 1765: Patrick Henry condemned Grenville's new legislation, attacked George III for supporting it 1. Compared the king to Charles I ii. James Otis (Massachusetts) persuaded the House of Representatives to call an all-colony congress to implore relief from the Act iii. The Stamp Act Congress 1. Nine colonial assemblies 2. Met in NYC in Oct 1765 3.
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