Book Notes- Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 The British Empire in...

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Chapter 3- The British Empire in America Monday, September 03, 2007 7:46 PM 1660-1750 1. The Politics of Empire, 1660-1713 i. Prior to 1660 the colonies of England were governed as the people pleased (during English civil war) i. The Great Aristocratic Land Grab i. Charles II (ruled 1660-1685) of England established Restoration Colonies ii. 1663 he gave eight noblemen Carolina iii. Gave his brother, James, the Duke of York New Jersey and New York (was New Netherland) iv. Handful of English Nobles took large provinces like Maryland v. Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (1669) wanted a manorial system where a mass of serfs would be governed by a few powerful nobles vi. The Carolinas 1. Manorial system not effective 2. Settlers grew their own crops on family farms 3. In 1677, inspired by Bacon, resident of Albemarle County had an uprising, rebelled again in 1708 4. South Carolina: lucrative trade, slave labor, brutal Indian warfare (trade in their own people for alcohol/guns) vii. William Penn and the Quakers 1. Pennsylvania 2. Peaceful with surrounding Indians 3. 1681 Charles II gave Penn Pennsylvania 4. Penn joined Society of Friends (religious sect that condemned war and lavishness) 5. Refuge for fellow Quakers 6. Quakers followed teachings of George Fox and Margaret Fell, rejected pessemism from Puritans 7. Penn tried to attract European Protestants and in 1683 migrants from Saxony (German) founded Germantown 8. Most open and democratic of the Restoration Colonies
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ii. From Mercantilism to Imperial Dominion i. Navigation Acts implanted to create English trade dominance ii. Mercantilism: Theory and Practice 1. Nav. Act of 1651 excluded Dutch merchants from the English colonies 2. Parliamentary Acts in 1660 and '63 strengthened the ban on foreign traders 3. Revenue Act of 1673 imposed "plantation duty" on American exports of sugar and tobacco 4. Three commercial wars between 1652 and 1674, English navy drove the Dutch from New Netherland, England encroached on Holland's slave trade dominance 5. Many colonists weren't happy with the mercantilist laws, Massachusetts Bay openly refused to cooperate 6. In 1684 the Lords of Trade got the English Court of Chancery to annul the charter of Massachusetts Bay stating that the Puritan gov't had violated the Nav. Acts and outlawed Church of England 7.
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