Book Notes- Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Religion and Reform...

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Chapter 11- Religion and Reform Monday, November 05, 2007 9:16 PM 1820-1860 1. Individualism a. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Transcendentalism i. Emerson was leading voice ii. Self-realization message reached hundreds and thousands of people through writings and lectures iii. Praised those who rejected traditions in a civilized manner b. Emerson's Literary Influence i. Henry David Thoreau and Margaret Fuller 1. Walden 2. Woman in the Nineteenth Century ii. Walt Whitman 1. Poet 2. Optimistic but not naïve iii. Darker Visions: Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville 1. Emerson influenced Hawthorne and Melville who had darker views 2. Individualism to the extreme c. Brook Farm i. Economic failure ii. Poets and artists iii. Emersonians abandoned their search for a new system of social organization 2. Rural Communalism and Urban Popular Culture a. Mother Ann Lee and the Shakers i. First successful American communial movement ii. Revolved around Ann Lee iii. Founded 20 communities iv. Furniture making b. Arthur Brisbane and Fourierism i.
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