POL/AAS.339 CONTEMPORARY CHINA History, Politics & Diplomacy Fall 2019 Session 3-B The ‘Nanjing Decade’, Japanese Invasion, and events leading up to the Long March (1934-35)
Outline of the last session The New Culture Movement & the May 4 Movement Rise & consolidation of the Kuo Min Tang (KMT) and the birth of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) KMT-CCP co-operation in the early years under Sun Yat-sen Death of Sun Yat-sen (1925) and the rise of Chiang Kai-shek The Northern Expedition (1925-27) under the first United Front - its success (Spring 1927) and later collapse The Shanghai Massacre (April 12, 1927) and sealing of the KMT rift with the CCP, followed by…… Severe intensification of CCP-KMT rivalries
Outline of today’s session CCP suffers severe setback after the Shanghai Massacre (Apr.1927) with their cadres expelled from all major urban centers. On 1 Aug. CCP cadres stage an uprising in Nanchang , (Jiangxi) which is soundly defeated by Chiang’s forces Mao’s ‘Autumn Harvest Uprising’ (Sept/Oct 1927) & its disastrous failure CCP’s falling fortunes & KMT’s glorious “Nanjing Decade” (1928- 37) Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1932-33) The CCP and its COMINTERN advisors urge more urban insurrections. Mao supports peasant uprisings. Other events leading up to the “Long March” The Long March (1934 -35) and its enduring significance/legacy
Nanchang Uprising (Aug.1, 1927) 八一南昌起义 (Bāyī nánchāng qǐyì) Name given to the first major counter-offensive launched by the CCP to counter the anti-communist purges by the Nationalists (KMT) that began with the Shanghai Massacre. August 1 was later regarded as the anniversary of the founding of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) as it was the first major action fought by the communists against the KMT under Chiang Kai-shek Military forces in Nanchang under the leadership of He Long and Zhou En-lai rebelled in an attempt to seize control of the city after the end of the first KMT-CCP alliance . Other important leaders in this event were Zhu De, Ye Ting, and Liu Bo-cheng. CCP forces successfully occupied Nanchang at first but were soon overwhelmed and besieged by better organized KMT . They escaped from the siege by August 5, withdrawing to the Jinggang Mountains of western Jiangxi.
Autumn Harvest Uprising (Sept.7, 1927) 秋收起義 (Qīushōu Qiyì) Name given to the armed insurrection, spearheaded by Mao under orders of the CCP leadership in the autumn of 1927, to fight the KMT with the help of a small army of peasants . They were no match for the well-trained KMT soldiers The slogan: “Not a single grain of the new harvest for the landowner” was proclaimed by the CCP The uprising was soundly defeated by KMT forces and Mao had to retreat to Jinggang Mountains on the Hunan- Jiangxi border. Mao was blamed by the CCP leadership for the failed uprising Even more ambitious attempts to take major cities such as Nanchang, Changsha, Shantou and Guangzhou also failed miserably.
- Fall '19
- Mao Zedong, Kuomintang, Chiang Kai-shek