Food and Nutrition Exam 1 - Food and Nutrition"Cheat Sheet...

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Food and Nutrition “Cheat Sheet” Dietary Guidelines for Americans - Published by the Department of HHS and USDA - Updated every 5 years - Key recommendations o Adequate nutrient intake within calorie needs o Weight management o Physical activity o Specific food groups to encourage o Fats o Carbohydrates o Sodium and Potassium o Alcoholic beverages o Food safety Healthy Diet - To consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of food Not all foods are equal - Nutrient density , empty calories , energy density Daily Reference Intakes (DRI) - 4 lists of values for measuring the nutrient intakes of healthy people Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) - Nutrient intake estimated to meet the needs of 50% of the individuals in a certain age & gender group Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) - Nutrient intake that suffices for 97-98% of healthy individuals in an age & gender group - EAR x 1.2 - Only for 19 nutrients Adequate Intakes (AI) - AI is used in absence of adequate information for RDA - Set for children under 1-2 yr Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) - Ceiling, not a goal Estimate Energy Requirements - Avg energy needs for various age and gender groups - More conservative Daily Values - Based on two standards
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o RDI for vitamins and minerals o DRV (daily reference value) for nutrients w/o RDA’s - Based on 60% from carbs, 30% fat, 10% protein - Used to compare foods Food Label - Product names - Manufacturer’s name and address - Uniform serving size - Amount in the package - Ingredients in descending order by weight Food Label - Nutrient claims o Approved wording to describe nutrient values o Ex: “fat free”, “low sodium” - Health claims o FDA approves statements linking diet and health Percent Energy Supplied - Kcal from food/daily kcal intake Total energy - Protein: 4 kcal/g - Fat: 9 kcal/g - Carbohydrates: 4 kcal/g Digestive System - Alimentary canal (big muscle) o Epithelium lines the lumen (1 st line of defense) o Sub mucosal layer (muscle layer) o Muscularis - Assisting organs o Salivary glands o Pancreas o Liver o Gallbladder - Movements o Peristalsis o Segmentation - Absorption o Passive or simple diffusion o Facilitated (water-soluble vitamins) Carrier shuttles substances into the absorptive cells High to low concentration o Active (glucose, amino acids) Uses a carrier and ATP Digestive Tract 1. Mouth a. Chews and mixes food with saliva, enzymes (salivary amylase and lingual lipase) to help breakdown simple sugars b. Epiglottis (protects trachea) 2. Esophagus a. Cardiac/lower esophageal sphincter
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3. Stomach a. chyme, food, gastric juices b. ~4 cups, 2-4 hrs c. sphincter of odd 4. Small Intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) a. ~10 ft b. Enzymes and villi site of absorption c.
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