The Digestive System - The Digestive System – 10.1 Macromolecule � very large molecule made up of smaller molecules that are linked together �

The Digestive System - The Digestive System – 10.1...

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The Digestive System – 10.1 Macromolecule: ·very large molecule made up of smaller molecules that are linked together·grouped in four major categories (essential nutrients): carbohydrates, lipids (fats), proteins, and nucleic acids·energy released by macromolecules is used to maintain the body’s metabolism Metabolism: the sum total of all of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism Essential nutrient: a nutrient that cannot be made by the body, and must be obtained from food Three main fluid compartments of the body that are made of thousands of molecules and ions (water, phosphates, hydrogen ions, and sodium ions) that are inorganic (non-living) matter:·cytoplasm inside of cells·fluid between cells (interstitial fluid)·fluid in the blood Organic molecules: contain carbon bonded to hydrogen – also atoms such as oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen – macromolecules are larger versions of this (raw materials that our bodies need to provide energy, regulate cellular activities, and build tissue)Carbohydrates: macromolecules that always contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (almost always two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen for every atom of carbon)·provide short term or long term energy storage ·two main types are simple sugars and polysaccharides
Monosaccharides: a simple sugar with three to seven carbon atoms (glucose and fructose)Disaccharides: double sugars – a sugar made up of two monosaccharide molecules (sucrose, maltose, and lactose) Polysaccharides: complex carbohydrates that consist of many linked simple sugars (starch, cellulose, and glycogen)Glycogen: a polysaccharide made up of glucose sub-units ·starch stores energy in plants, glycogen does the same for animals Lipids: a group of macromolecules that are insoluble in water (fat and oil)·basic structure is a molecule of glycerol with three carbon atoms, each attached to a fatty acid chain·store 2.25 more energy per gram than any other biological molecule (function as energy storing molecules) ·other lipids, called phospholipids, form the membrane that separates a cell from its external environment Proteins: made up of small sub-units called amino acids ·help build and repair muscles and cell membranes·most protein molecules are made up of hundreds of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds called polypeptides Nucleic Acids: direct growth and development of all organisms using a chemical code·two types are ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)Breaking Down Macromolecules: Enzymes·before the body can use carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, the body must break them down chemically into molecules small enough to be absorbed by the cells lining the smallintestine, this is called hydrolysis·hydrolysis: a chemical reaction in which water breaks apart macromolecules into smaller molecules ·enzymes: a special type of protein molecule that helps with the important chemical reactions in the body – secreted by cells in the digestive tract
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