Period 8 and 9 ReviewAtomic Energy CommissionCreated in 1946 to oversee the research and production of atomic power.1325. SuperpowersThe name give to the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. because of their dominance in the arms race and economic struggle for world power. Both countries had nuclear bombs by the late 1940's and 1950's.1326. Socialism, CommunismSocialism is the social theory advocating community control of the means of production. Communism is the social system based on collective ownership of all productive property.1327. SatellitesEastern European countries conquered by the U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.1328. Nuremberg trials19 out of 22 German civil and military leaders were found guilty of "war crimes." 12 were sentenced to death, 3 to life sentences and the rest to five to twenty year sentences.1329. Department of Defense createdHeaded by McNamara, it succeeded in bringing the armed services under tight civilian control.1330. Voice of America, CAREEstablished in 1942 as part of the Office of War Information, since 1953 it has been the international radio network of the U.S. Information Agency.1331. Yugoslavia, Marshall TitoAn election was held in 1945 in which the moderate candidates were not allowed to run. On November 29, 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed. Following the adoption of a new constitution, the assembly reconstituted itself into a parliament. Tito was the Premier of the cabinet.1332. Czechoslovakian coup1948 - Czechoslovakia succumbed to Soviet subversion. Although moderates and Communists shared power after WWII, in 1947-1948, fearing a loss of popular support, the Communists seized control of the government and the moderates gave in to avoid civil war.1333. Containment, George F. KennanA member of the State Department, he felt that the best way to keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power.1334. Truman Doctrine1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.1335. Marshall PlanIntroduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
1336. Point FourProgram proposed by Truman to help the world's backwards areas.1337. Israel created1948 - In 1947 the UN General Assembly had approved the creation of a Jewish homeland by ending the British mandate in Palestine and partitioning it into two states: one Jewish and one Arab.On May 14, 1948, the Jews proclaimed the State of Israel, and all of the surrounding Arab nations declared war and invaded. After a short war, the Israelis gained control of the country.1338. Berlin blockadeApril 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under Franc, the U.S. and Great