Exam 3 Notes.docx - Patterns of Nation-States and Culture...

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Patterns of Nation-States and Culture in the Atlantic World The origins of modernity (1800-present) Modernity is the product of 2 major revolutions: Constitutional revolutions (1776-1804) North America, France, Haiti Ideological in nature Challenged the concept of monarchical rule by divine right New idea of popular sovereignty People now have a voice Greatness of the American revolution was for the idea it fought for The industrial revolution (1760-1840) North America, Europe Fundamentally reordered society Allowed people to get off farms, work in factories, cheaper products, getting more Those participated felt like they lost their souls in the process Changed relationship between work and life The Enlightenment Outgrowth of: Came from ideas from the Renaissance, baroque, and new sciences thought Origins of philosophy: Religious wars Wars stated over religion, but really over politics Question and criticize concept of religion, nationalism, nature of warfare Should wars be fought over another’s whim Consistent abuse and exploitation of the people By political rulers and the churches Both Catholics and protestants Discovery of new world and age of exploration Gaining of new cultures and ideas New philosophy and ways of thinking Mechanistic and deterministic ideas of scientific revolution Thinkers embrace the Copernican-Newtonian paradigm that holds: While god created the universe, science defined it Salons Locus of culture and intellectual developments Gathering of men and women who exchanged intellectual, scientific, and philosophical ideas and proper social mores how one should act in society Increased emphasis on scientific method / secularization of learning / religious tolerance Universal education, progress, separation of church and state Most important concepts: Reason Only through rational thought that human beings could improve This mode of thinking was only legitimate way of thinking Reason have equalizing effect on society
Skepticism Skeptical of divine right of kings and of monarchies in general Natural of reality and religious doctrine Believed everything in the world should be subject to scientific experimentation Test its reality Deism Holds that god exist when he doesn’t intervene personally on earth Universe is held together by natural law instituted by god Religious tolerance Skeptical of religious institutions Believed people should be free to worship as they wished Limit political power of organized religions (separation of church and state) Liberty Holds that god and/or nature gave all human beings basic rights, human beings should be free to act without oppressive restriction Government has no authority over an individual’s conscientious Empiricism vs. Rationalism

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