notesdirections for paperpsych221

notesdirections for paperpsych221 - PSYCH 221 summary of...

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PSYCH 221, summary of notes from March 6 and directions for paper 2, due 3/27 Questions to focus paper2-  What influences our choices to obey or disobey authorities?  Is our behavior determined by personality factors such as an Authoritarian personality,  developmental  factors such as Kohlberg’s stages of morality, or social psychological  factors such as dehumanization , deindividuation, and other situational factors ? Summary of Issue # 9 Point Can psych research explain Abu Graib prison scandal or is it the result of a few bad  apples? 1, Normal people can be made to inflict pain and suffering on others. 2. doesn’t absolve those who committed the acts, but they may not bear the sole  responsibility 3. psych research such as Milgram experiment and Zimbardo  prison experiment  and  social psych principles help explain what happened at Abu Graib. Counterpoint 1. Abu Graib was result of individual misconduct 2. not based on psych experiments 3. blaming nature of prison environment allows those who committed abuse to avoid  responsibility Abu Graib- In April 2004, prison scandal at Abu Graib became public.  American  soldiers had been abusive to Iraqi prisoners at Abu Graib, and they were convicted of  misconduct, dishonorable  discharged and jailed.  The officer in command was eventually  demoted in rank for her role in the scandal.   Were these 7 soldiers ultimately responsible or were they merely following order and  were they scapegoats of their superiors? Ac/to Claudia Wallis,social psych experiments such as the experiments by Zimbardo in  the prison study and Milgram’s obedience to authority can explain the abuses of Abu  Graib. The point of these experiments and moral scandals in general such as Abu Graib is  that any of us are capable  of inhumanity and cruelty under certain circumstances or  social conditions.  Some of the prison guards and violent histories and some  did not.   However, Wallis maintains that people can lapse into sadistic behavior when it is  sanctioned by an authority as proven by Stanley Milgram’s experiment. 
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 In Zimbardo’s  experiment which is closely analogous to Abu Graib, Zimbardo  concluded that the abuse by guards could be linked to group dynamics and situational  factors not to individual personality factors.  According to Zimbardo, abuse can occur  under these conditions: 1. there are no clearly defined rules 2. there is a lack of training 3.there is a lack of punishment for violations of the rules.     In Zimbardo’s 1971 prison experiment, college students at Stanford  were subjects in  which some became prison guards and some became prisoners.    The prison guard 
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