NUR-631-RS-Topic4Hematological.ppt - NUR 631 Module 4 Hematology Slides Copyright •Nicole Hairston RN MSN ACNP-BC •Huether and McCance(2014

NUR-631-RS-Topic4Hematological.ppt - NUR 631 Module 4...

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NUR 631 NUR 631 Module 4 Hematology Module 4 Hematology Slides Copyright: Nicole Hairston, RN, MSN, ACNP-BC Huether and McCance (2014). Pathophysiological Basis of Disease in Adults and Children (7th ed.). Mosby, Elsevier. Evolve Elsevier: Alterations of Erythrocyte Function; Alterations of Leukocyte, Lymphoid, and Hemostatic Function; Alterations of Hematologic Function in Children
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REVIEW OF BLOOD REVIEW OF BLOOD Plasma Water Proteins Clotting factors, albumins (biggest protein) , globulins Fats Cholesterol HDL/LDL Triglycerides Electrolytes, Hormones, Gases, Nutrients Wastes Bun, Creat, Uric Acid, Bilirubin Myeloid and lymphnode * know
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Erythrocytes ( ~ 4-6 mil/mm3) Thrombocytes (140,00-340,000/mm3) Leukocytes (5,000-10,000/mm3) 2 Neutrophils 57-67 % 3 Eosinophils 1-4% 5 Basophils 0-1% 4 Monocytes 3-7% Never let monkey eat banana Said GRANdpa BEN 1 Lymphocytes 25-33% *Components of Blood
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Leukocytes Leukocytes Think Viral infection Think Viral infection Leukocytosis Counts are higher than normal. Is a normal protective physiologic response to stressors or to the invasion of microorganisms. Can be pathological Leukopenia Counts are lower than normal. Is always abnormal. Low white blood cell (WBC) count predisposes a person to infections.
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Neutrophils Neutrophils Think Bacterial infection * Think Bacterial infection * Neutrophilia Initial infection or inflammation Increased need Bands shift to the left (Leukemoid reaction) Neutropenia Primary Congenital or acquired (i.e. leukemia ) Secondary IS disorders, medications
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Eosinophils Eosinophils Allergies and parasitis Allergies and parasitis Eosinophilia Hypersensitivity reaction Allergic reaction Parasites Eosinopenia Primary cause Migration of cells to inflammatory sites
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Basophils Basophils Basophilia Inflammation and hypersensitivity reactions. Histamine Basopenia Acute infections, hyperthyroidism, and long-term steroid therapy.
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Monocytes Monocytes Chronic infection and cardiovascular Chronic infection and cardiovascular damage damage Monocytosis Usually occurs with neutropenia in later stages of bacterial infections. Found in chronic infection and correlates with extent of myocardial damage Monocytopenia Very little is known about this condition. Prednisone treatments Hairy cell leukemia
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Lymphocytes Lymphocytes Viral Viral Lymphocytosis Acute viral infections Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) When in doubt pick EBV Other causes Leukemia, lymphomas, some chronic infections Lymphocytopenia Immune deficiencies, drug destruction, viral destruction, radiation, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, and HIV )
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Infectious Mononucleosis Infectious Mononucleosis Cause EBV – B cells Transmission: Usually by saliva through personal contact (e.g., kissing, hence the term kissing disease ) Signs and Symptoms Malaise, fatigue, arthralgia, rash Fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy
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