Energy momentum.docx - Old quantum theory Main article Old quantum theory Photons and energy quanta The photoelectric effect Incoming photons on the

Energy momentum.docx - Old quantum theory Main article Old...

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Old quantum theory Main article: Old quantum theory Photons and energy quanta The photoelectric effect. Incoming photons on the left strike a metal plate (bottom), and eject electrons, depicted as flying off to the right. Main articles: Photon and Quantum In a 1905 paper, [206] Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles ( quanta ). Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, including Max Planck and Niels Bohr. This idea only became universally accepted in 1919, with Robert Millikan 's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect, and with the measurement of Compton scattering . Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant . He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave. But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect. [206] Quantized atomic vibrations Main article: Einstein solid In 1907, Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator. Einstein was aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be difficult, but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve the specific heat problem in classical mechanics. Peter Debye refined this model.
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  • Spring '18
  • Photon, Physik. Einstein

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