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Objectives Reading Assignment Lecture Notes Video Resource Online Resources Practice Quiz/Self-Assessments Chapter 4 The First Two Years - Psychosocial Development Objectives At the completion of this chapter, students will be able to: 1. Describe the basic emotions expressed by infants during the first days and months. 2. Describe the main developments in the emotional life of the child between 6 months and 2 years. 3. Discuss the links between the infant’s emerging self-awareness and his or her continuing emotional development. 4. Describe Freud’s first two psychosexual stages of infant development. 5. Describe Erikson’s first two psychosocial stages of infant development. 6. Contrast the perspectives of behaviorism and cognitive theory regarding the importance of caregiver behavior in the first two years of life. 7. Discuss how systems theory explains the role of temperament in the child’s psychosocial development. 8. Discuss the importance of goodness of fit and synchrony in caregiver–infant interaction during the first year, and describe the still-face technique for measuring synchrony. 9. Define attachment, explain how it is measured and how it is influenced by context, and identify factors that predict secure or insecure attachment. 10.Discuss the concept of social referencing, noting the difference in how the infant interacts with mother and father. 11.Discuss the impact of nonmaternal care on young children, and identify the factors that define high-quality day care. 12.State several conclusions that can be drawn from research on early psychosocial development. Back to Top Reading Assignment Invitation to the Lifespan , 1st Edition, by Kathleen S. Berger Chapter 4 - The First Two Years - Psychosocial Development Back to the top
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Lecture Notes -The First Two Years - Psychosocial Development I. Introduction and Emotional Development 1. Infants come into the world equipped with basic social predispositions and skills that contribute to their growth and development. Before infants walk and talk, they have a smaller range of emotions than later, when greater mobility coincides with more emotion. The first emotions that can be reliably discerned in infants are pleasure and pain. Other early infant emotions include curiosity and happiness. Smiles of pleasure appear during the first days of life; social smiles begin to appear at about 6 weeks and laughter at about 3 or 4 months. 2. Anger becomes evident at about 6 months. During infancy, anger is a healthy reaction and usually occurs in response to frustration. In contrast, sadness indicates withdrawal and is accompanied by an increase in the stress hormone cortisol . 3. Fully formed fear emerges at about 9 months. One expression of this new emotion is stranger wariness; another is separation anxiety, or fear of abandonment, which is normal at age 1, intensifies by age 2, and subsides after that. During the second year, anger and fear typically decrease and become more targeted toward specific things.
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