LEC #11 & 12 - Respiratory.pptx - Week 6 Respiratory System and Response to Exercise Last lecture biomechanics Name 2 ways in which the horse has

LEC #11 & 12 - Respiratory.pptx - Week 6 Respiratory...

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Week 6 Respiratory System and Response to Exercise
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Last lecture - biomechanics Name 2 ways in which the horse has adapted to longer stride length How does the horse maintain stride frequency more efficiently than man? What are some useful applications of biomechanics? What information can a ‘force plate’ provide? What is a typical stride length at a walk? a gallop? What is a typical stride frequency? Which gait is the most responsive to training?
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Some definitions Define ‘Respiration’ The process by which ATP is produced via oxygen Define ‘Breathing’ The process whereby gases are brought to the gas exchange surface and removed from it by bulk flow
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Anatomy of respiration Nostrils (obligate nasal breather...) Nasal passages Pharynx\larynx\trachea\carina Bronchi / Bronchioles/ Alveolar ducts/ alveoli Horse vs. Human (respiratory anatomy) Human (70kg) Horse (500kg) Airway generations 23 38-43 SA for gas exchange (m 2 /kg BW) 1.21 5 Lung capacity (L/kg BW) 0.08-0.1 0.08
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Nos e Epiglotis Soft palate Trach ea Larynx Lun g Bronchiole (G- 1) Terminal Bronchiole (G-23- 43?) Alveol us
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Respiratory-locomotory coupling Fixed ratio between respiratory and stride frequency Obligatory in the horse at canter or gallop ‘Mechanical’ theory The downward or upward position of forelimbs (piston) reduces and increases (respectively) the volume of thoracic cavity Reduces the work of breathing ‘Neuromuscular’ theory Coupling is under parasympathetic neuronal control Ie. Horse can ‘chose’ coupling frequency according to nasal obstructions etc.
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Composition of ‘air’ Atmospheric air (dry) O 2 (20.98%) CO 2 (0.04%) N 2 (78.06%) Others (mainly argon) (0.092%) Expired air (~100% humidity) O 2 (17%) CO 2 (3%)
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Measuring respiratory function Minute ventilation (V E ) – L/min Total amount of air moving through the lung in one minute Horses ~50-60L Tidal volume (V T ) - L Depth of breath Horses ~5-6 L Breathing frequency (f r ) – horses ~12bpm V E = V T x f r
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Measuring respiratory function Alveolar ventilation (V A ) Total amount of inspired air which reaches a gas exchange surface Dead space (V D ) Total amount of inspired air which does not reach a gas exchange surface V A = V E -V D
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VO 2max Horses have much higher aerobic capacity than humans Human (70kg) Horse (500kg) VO 2max at rest (mL/min/kg BM) 40 4 VO 2max during high
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  • Winter '18
  • Wendy Pearson
  • Cortisol, VE, Recurrent Airway

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