Week 11 (Mar 25-31) - Week 11 – Monday March 25 to Sunday March 31 Readings • Textbook o Chapter 14 pp 350-376 o Chapter 15 pp 379-383(Overweight

Week 11 (Mar 25-31) - Week 11 – Monday March 25 to Sunday...

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Week 11 – Monday, March 25 to Sunday, March 31 Readings • Textbook: o Chapter 14 pp. 350-376 o Chapter 15 pp. 379-383 (Overweight and Obesity) Nutrient Needs DRIs for Key Nutrients DRIs for preadolescents and adolescents Nutrient 9-13 years 14-18 years Energy 2279 kcal (males) 2071kcal (females) 3152 kcal (males) 2368kcal (females) Protein 0.95g/kg 0.85g/kg Carbohydrate 130g/day 130g/day Fibre 31g (males) 26g (females) 38g (males) 26g (females) Fat 25-35% 25-35% Saturated Fat <10% <10% Vitamin D 600 IU 600 IU Calcium 1300 mg 1300 mg Iron 8 11 (M); 15 (F) Zinc 8 11 (M); 9 (F) Folate 300 micrograms 400 micrograms B12 1.8 2.4 Thiamine 0.9 1.2 (M); 1 (F) Riboflavin 0.9 1.3 (M); 1 (F) Niacin 12 16 (M); 14 (F) Vitamin A 600 micrograms 700 micrograms Vitamin E 11 15
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Vitamin C 45 75 (M); 65 (F) *Height is a better estimator for energy and protein needs than biological age Selected Nutrient Intakes: 14-18 years Food component Male Female Calories (average) 2901 kcal 2048 kcal % > AMDR for fat 13.4% 12.9% Fibre 18.3 grams 14.3 grams % > AI for Calcium 49% 16.8% % > EAR for Vit D 30% 16% Sodium (average) 4142 mg 2936 mg % > TUL for Sodium 97.4% 82.2% Nutrients of concern for Vegetarian diets ~ 900,000 Canadians are vegetarian (4% adolescents) More restrictive the diet, concerns with adequacy, especially for growing children and adolescents Vegetarian diets are more common in adolescents who have disordered eating; this does not mean that the vegetarian diet ‘caused’ disordered eating, rather a vegetarian lifestyle is used to camouflage the eating disorder Fortification and supplements will help vegans to achieve adequate nutrition Reasons adolescents adopt a vegetarian diet include: Cultural or religious beliefs Moral or ethical concerns Health beliefs To restrict fat and/or calories A means of independence from family “appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases…” These position papers suggest nutrients of concern to be: iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, B12, omega-3 fatty acids, and iodine. For vegans, the following suggestions are given: Iron The body is believed to adapt (decreased loss and increased absorption) to a long-term low iron environment as incidence of iron deficiency anemia is similar in vegetarians as compared to the general population Increased iron needs related to: Rapid rate of linear growth, increase in blood volume and menarche in females Absorption can be improved by soaking and sprouting bean, seeds, grains, fermentation
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Zinc Large increase in needs, especially males (for sexual maturation and growth) Decreased bioavailability, but dependent on level of phytic acid content Soaking, sprouting may increase Overt deficiency not seen but diet intake below needs Requirement may be above RDA due to use of high-phytate foods as a base for diet; however overt deficiency in Western vegetarians is not seen Potentially use fortified foods Supplement with a multivitamin Calcium and vitamin D Critical to ensure peak bone mass achieved (~4 times more calcium absorbed
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