Study Guide Quiz 3(3).docx - UNRS 105 Foundations Quiz 3...

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UNRS 105 Foundations Quiz 3 Study Guide Hazards of Immobility Phases of bone healing Inflammatory Phase o Clot forms after bleeding occurs around the fracture site. o Granulation Tissue is Formed o Cellular Proliferation - formation of new bone Reparative Phase o Callus is formed o Size and shape of the callus is dependent on the type and severity of the fracture o Ossification - fractured ends have knit together Remodeling and Consolidation o Honeycombed bone form and becomes compact o Fracture site is united although bone healing may take several months to complete for normal use Risk of embolism from fractures Pulmonary Embolism - embolus blocking pulmonary arterial flow to one or more lobes of lung. Embolisms can form from immobility and then go to the pulmonary arteries. Signs and Symptoms of Pulmonary embolism: sudden chest pain, cyanosis, dyspnea, rapid weak pulse, drop in BP, usually from lower extremity fracture. Fat Embolism: Can occur whenever there is a chance for fat to enter the circulatory system, such as during surgery or accidental trauma. A common scenario is fatty marrow entering the circulation after a fracture to a large long bone such as the femur or pelvis, or after surgery on such a bone. Fat Embolism Sign & Symptoms: Symptoms are a result of dysfunction of organs (lungs, brain, skin) o Agitation, delirium, or coma. Dyspnea. From lower extremity or multiple fractures. Rash. Symptoms usually occur 1-3 days after the insult. The mortality rate of fat embolism is approximately 10%. Treatment: Treatment includes: possible anticoagulation, stabilization of fractures, inferior vena cava filter, oxygen, supportive care, and ICU hospitalization. Nursing care/interventions for orthopedic patients: Neurovascular checks decrease edema but the use of pillows ensure there is proper drainage Skin care on area surrounding cast ensure pain and pressure is maintained within tolerable limits Risk factors for and prevention of osteoporosis:
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UNRS 105 Foundations Quiz 3 Study Guide Risk factors: o Calcium deficiency o osteopenia (low bone density) o postmenopausal women o White/Asian ethnicity o alcohol & tobacco use o thin build or small stature o late menarche o diseases such as: cystic fibrosis, diabetes, adrenal insufficiency, celiac disease, Inflammatory bowel disease, lupus Prevention: o routine screening for women and men over 65 o proper exercise program o adequate calcium intake 1200mg/day o adequate vit D intake 800-1000 IU/day Complications of traction: increased muscle spasms numbness and tingling decreased ROM, joint laxity decreased muscle strength pressure ulcers pin necrosis infection (osteomyelitis) delayed union (or nonunion) problems related to immobility Body alignment (pg. 407 [end of page] - pg. 408) The term body alignment is easily interchangeable with posture. They are similar in that they refer to the positioning of the joints, tendons, ligaments and muscles
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  • Fall '19
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