LEC #5 & 6 - Bones, Tendons & Ligaments.pptx - Week 3 – Lectures 5 and 6 Bones Tendons and Ligaments Response to Exercise and Training Last

LEC #5 & 6 - Bones, Tendons & Ligaments.pptx - Week...

This preview shows page 1 - 12 out of 38 pages.

Week 3 – Lectures 5 and 6 Bones, Tendons and Ligaments: Response to Exercise and Training
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

Last Week describe the sequence of events for muscle contraction and relaxation describe differences between HYPP, RER, PSSM and GBED? why is anaerobic metabolism self-limiting? what are the causes of aerobic fatigue? what is the respiratory exchange ratio? which muscle fibre types are oxidative? which muscle fibre types are glycolytic? which muscle fibre type fatigues most quickly?
Image of page 2
This Week Bones, tendons and ligaments and their responses to exercise Role of the skeleton protection of vital organs reservoir for minerals structural support and locomotion must balance the need for function with necessity for energy efficiency
Image of page 3

Subscribe to view the full document.

Bone adaptations for energy conservation bone mass lightweight to allow for speed distribution of bone mass higher mass proximally, lower mass distally lever arms at elbow and hock allow small muscle contractions to produce fast, extensive movement of the lower limbs (energy efficient)
Image of page 4
Bone cells Osteoblasts (“Blasts Build”) (mononuclear) synthesize matrix osteoclasts (“Clasts Consume”) (multinucleate) derived from monocytes residing on bone surface (breaking down matrix) adhesion molecules form seal with underlying bone, which lowers pH and resorbes matrix this occurs in communication with osteoblasts osteocytes (generated from osteoblasts) regulates bone mass and architecture in response to changing mechanical demands Lining cells pluripotent cells that respond to mechanical and hormonal stimuli can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and other cell types
Image of page 5

Subscribe to view the full document.

Bone matrix organic Type 1 collagen (~35% incl. water) for tensile strength (allows it to bend) proteoglycans, glycoproteins signaling molecules (growth factors etc.) osteonectin, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin present in blood and used as indicators of bone matrix turnover inorganic hydroxyapatite (~65%) compressive strength
Image of page 6
cortical bone is directionally structured via ‘osteons’ primary osteons (formed during original bone development) secondary osteons (occur during repair of microcracking) cancellous (spongy) bone does not form osteons matrix deposition is related to mechanical loading of the bone
Image of page 7

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 8
Skeletal development intramembraneous ossification (bones formed in utero) eg. bones of the skull endochondral ossification (bones formed peripartum from hyaline cartilage) most appendicular bones (eg. cannon bone)
Image of page 9

Subscribe to view the full document.

Mechanical properties of bone long bones tubular in order to reduce tensile and compression stress reduce weight by minimizing central material Modeling of bone is determined by growth and by loading Microdamage is a stimulus to induce resorption of the damaged matrix followed by deposition of new bone.
Image of page 10
Functional adaptation of bone bones genetically programmed to a particular strain threshold
Image of page 11

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 12
  • Winter '18
  • Wendy Pearson
  • Collagen, Tendon, tendon injuries

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask 0 bonus questions You can ask 0 questions (0 expire soon) You can ask 0 questions (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes