Neurophysiology - Neurophysiology Two main types of neural communication ● Between neurons chemical ○ Neurotransmitters Neural Electrical impulse

Neurophysiology - Neurophysiology Two main types of neural...

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Neurophysiology Two main types of neural communication Between neurons: chemical Neurotransmitters Neural Electrical impulse Aka the action potential Rapid change in the relative charge of the inside versus the outside of the cell How does this happen? By changing the distribution of ions along the neuronal membrane Ions: electrically charged atom of molecule - Unequal number of protons (+) and electrons (-) Two major types of ions: - Anion: extra electrons (Cl-) - Cation: missing electrons (Na+, K+, Ca2+) Electrical signals in neurons are caused by the movement of ions in and out of the cell - through ion channels Semi-permeable: some ions can pass through, others can’t Neuron at rest Membrane Potential: Difference in charge inside the cell vs. outside the cell (across the membrane) Caused by an unequal distribution of ions Squid Giant Axons Measureing Membrane Potential Need 2 electrodes to measure difference in charge - in oscilloscope mV There’s an electrical gradient There’s a negative membrane potential Neuron is polarized Resting membrane potential = -60 to -70 mV Graded changes in potential Can be artificially applied with an electrical stimulator - Injects cations or anions into axon Depolarization vs. Hyperpolarization Depolarization
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Membrane potential becomes more positive Closer to zero More positive charge inside the cell Excitatory Hyperpolarization Membrane potential becomes even more negative
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