Poli_Sci_final_review - Review Chapter7 Bureaucracy The...

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Review Chapter7 Bureaucracy - The complex structure of offices, tasks, rules, and principles of organization that are employed by all large-scale institutions to coordinate the work of their personnel. λ The core of bureaucracy is the division of labor. Each job is specialized to gain efficiencies, then each worker must depend on the output of other workers, and that requires careful allocation of jobs and resources. λ Bureaucracies allow governments to operate. Implementation - the efforts of departments to translate laws into specific bureaucratic routines. Bureaucrats make and enforce rules. Rule making - A quasi-legislative administrative process that produces regulations by government agencies. Administrative Adjudication - Applying rules and precedents to specific cases to settle disputes with regulated parties. Administrative Legislation - Rules made by regulatory agencies and commissions. (settling disputes) Federal Reserve System - Consisting of 12 Federal Reserve Banks, the Fed facilitates exchanges of cash, checks, and credit; it regulates member banks; and it uses monetary policies to fight inflation and deflation. Bureaucratic Drift- the oft-observed phenomenon of bureaucratic implementation that produces policy more to the liking of the bureaucracy than originally legislated, but without triggering a political reaction from elected officials. Deregulation - A policy of reducing or eliminating regulatory restraints on the conduct of individuals or private institutions Privatization - Removing all or part of a program from the public sector to the private sector. 4 different types of agencies within the executive branch 1 Clientele Agencies 2 Clientele agencies are departments or bureaus of government whose mission is to promote, serve, or represent a particular interest. Such as the departments of labor, agriculture, etc. 3 Agencies for maintaining the Union 4 Keeps government going. There are three main categories 1. agencies for control of the sources of government revenue 2. agencies for control of conduct defined as a threat to internal national security and 3. agencies for defending American security from external threats examples of these are Treasury, Justice Defense, and State. 5 Regulatory agencies 6 Departments, bureaus, or independent agencies whose primary mission is to eliminate or restrict certain behaviors defined as being negative in themselves or negative in their consequences. (OSHA, FDA, FTC) 7 Redistributive agencies 8 These agencies influence the amount of money in the economy and they directly influence who has money, who has credit, and whether people will want to invest or save their money rather than spend it (how corporations and people spend and invest trillions of dollars annually).
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