Autoimmune Processes Educator: Naomi Palmer Mitchell Presented to: Senior Nursing Students Northern Caribbean University September 6, 2017
Objectives • Describe the pathophysiology of Multiple Sclerosis • Identify the clinical manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis • Discuss the medical and nursing management of Multiple Sclerosis
Objectives Cont’d • Describe the pathophysiology of Myasthenia Gravis • Identify the clinical manifestations of Myasthenia Gravis • Discuss the medical and nursing management of Myasthenia Gravis • Describe the pathophysiology of Guillain-Barré Syndrome • Identify the clinical manifestations of Guillain-Barré Syndrome • Apply the nursing process as a framework for care of patients with multiple sclerosis and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Glossary • Ataxia: impaired coordination of movements • Dyskinesia: impaired ability to execute voluntary movements • Dysphagia: difficulty swallowing, causing the patient to be at risk for aspiration • Paresthesia: a sensation of numbness or tingling or a “pins and needles” sensation • Spasticity: muscular hypertonicity with increased resistance to stretch often associated with weakness, increased deep tendon reflexes, and diminished superficial reflexes • Diplopia: double vision
Multiple Sclerosis Background • Immune-mediated, progressive demyelinating disease of the CNS • Demyelination refers to the destruction of myelin, the fatty and protein material that surrounds certain nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord • Age group mainly affected 20-40 years • Women
Multiple Sclerosis Cont’d • Cause (ongoing research) • Researchers believe that some environmental exposure at a young age may play a role in the development of MS later in life.
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- Spring '18
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- Myasthenia gravis