A&P I: Chapter 5 and Lecture Notes - Histology Tissues ●...

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HistologyTissuesGroups of cells specialized to perform a certain function4 major types of tissues:Epithelial -- Covering (covered in next chapter)Connective -- SupportMuscle -- MovementNervous -- Control1.ConnectiveMost abundant tissue in the bodyBone, cartilage, blood, etcFunctionsBinding structures togetherSupportProtectionInsulationTransportationGeneral StructureExtracellular MatrixGround substance + fibersGround SubstanceUnstructured materialFluids and proteinsFibers - 3 types1.Collagenousa.Relatively thickb.Protein collagen (most abundant protein)c.Great tensile strength -- resist pulling forcesd.Flexible, but only slightly elastic2.Elastica.Composed of protein elastinb.Less strong than collagenous, more elastic3.Reticulara.Very thin fibersb.Composed of collagenc.Higher branched (different directions)d.Abundant between CT and other tissuesi.E.g reticular lamina of the basementmembrane
Fibrous Connective TissueIncludes all mature CT except bone, cartilage, and bloodTwo major subsets1.Loose CT (3 types)a.Areolari.Semifluid ground substanceii.Functions1.Reservoir - water & salts2.Retains fluids during inflammationa.Edema3.Cushions and separatesiii.Most widely distributed CT in bodyb.Reticular CTi.Delicate networkii.Supportc.Adipose CTi.Fatii.Protective cushioniii.Insulationiv.Stores energy2.Dense CT (3 types)a.Dense Regular CTi.Bundles collagen fibersii.Fibers run in same directioniii.Flexibleiv.Highly restraint to parallel tension forces1.Tendon and ligamentsv.Can handle mechanical stressb.Dense Irregular CTi.Fibers irregularly arrangedii.Resist tension from different directions1.Dermis - deep layer of skin2.Fasciae - tissue which surrounds musclesc.Elastic CTi.Thin, elastin proteinii.Found where elastic qualities are important1.Vocal cords2.Ligaments connecting adjacent vertebraeTypes of Connective Tissues1.Fibrous connective tissue2.Cartilage3.Bone4.Blood
CartilageFirm, resilient connective tissueGel-like matrixMatrix contains:Large number of collagen fibersSome elastic and reticular fibersGround substanceChondrocytes sit in lacunae in matrixLacunae - open spacesAvascular: No blood flow, no blood vesselsNo nerve cellsCartilage - 3 groups1.Hyaline Cartilagea.Glossy, bluish-whiteb.Matrix - very fine collagenous fibersc.Most abundanti.Examples: costal cartilage, larynx (voice box), Nasalseptum2.Fibrocartilage (white fibrous)a.Matrix - dense masses of collagenous fibersb.Very toughc.Less flexible and less less resilient than hyalinei.Examples: Articular disc: vertebral column, menisci ofkneeii.Functions: Shock absorber, Joint stability3.Elastic cartilage (yellow elastic)a.Matrix - dense network of elastic fibersb.More resilient or elastici.Examples: Cartilage of external ear, Epiglottisii.Functions: Gives form and shape, protectionBone & BloodBoneHard connective tissue“Blast” - osteoblast“Osteo” prefix refers to boneBlood

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