Acids and bases react with one another in neutralization reactions, illustrated by the equation
The water is derived from the hydrogen ion of the acid and the hydroxide ion of the base. The
salt, an ionic compound, is formed from the metal ion of the base and the non-metal ion from
the acid. Recall that Arrhenius defined acids as substances that produce hydrogen ions in
solutions, and bases as substances that produce hydroxide ions. You can see that neutralization
reactions are good applications of the Arrhenius definitions of acids and bases.
You may not be aware that when salt dissolves in water, a neutral solution is not always
created. The pH of a salt solution depends on the strength of the acid and base involved in the
reaction. This is the main focus of this lesson.
Neutralization has a number of medical applications. Antacid tablets, which contain
hydroxides or carbonates, are used to relieve stomach upsets by temporarily neutralizing a
small amount of stomach acid.
Planning Your Study
You may find this time grid helpful in planning when and how you will work through this
Suggested Timing for This Lesson (Hours)
Salt Hydrolysis and the Equivalence Point
Titrations and Selection of Indicators
Calculating the pH at the Equivalence Point
Determining ASA Mass
What You Will Learn
After completing this lesson, you will be able to
predict whether salts will be neutral, acidic, or basic
calculate the pH of the equivalence point of a neutralization reaction
solve problems related to acid–base equilibrium, using data from titrations