Ch_1_The Database Environment and Development Process-clean(1) (1).pptx - CHAPTER 1 THE DATABASE ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IMPORTANCE OF

Ch_1_The Database Environment and Development Process-clean(1) (1).pptx

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CHAPTER 1: THE DATABASE ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
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IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING DB & SQL
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IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING DB & SQL (CONT.)
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OBJECTIVES Define terms Name limitations of conventional file processing Explain advantages of databases Identify costs and risks of databases List components of database environment Identify categories of database applications Describe database system development life cycle Explain prototyping and agile development approaches Explain roles of individuals Explain the three-schema architecture for databases
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DEFINITIONS Database: organized collection of logically related data Data: stored representations of meaningful objects and events Structured: numbers, text, dates Unstructured: images, video, documents Information: data processed to increase knowledge in the person using the data Metadata: data that describes the properties and context of user data
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Figure 1-1a Data in context Context helps users understand data
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Graphical displays turn data into useful information that managers can use for decision making and interpretation Figure 1-1b Summarized data
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DATA VS. INFORMATION
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DISADVANTAGES OF FILE PROCESSING Program-Data Dependence All programs maintain metadata for each file they use Duplication of Data Different systems/programs have separate copies of the same data Limited Data Sharing No centralized control of data Lengthy Development Times Programmers must design their own file formats Excessive Program Maintenance 80% of information systems budget
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PROBLEMS WITH DATA DEPENDENCY Each application programmer must maintain its own data Each application program needs to include code for the metadata of each file Each application program must have its own processing routines for reading, inserting, updating, and deleting data Lack of coordination and central control Non-standard file formats
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Duplicate Data
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PROBLEMS WITH DATA REDUNDANCY Waste of space to have duplicate data Causes more maintenance headaches The biggest problem: Data changes in one file could cause inconsistencies Compromises in data integrity Validity, security, and availability of the data
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  • Spring '13
  • Piddington
  • Database management system, Database model

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