GEOL 1010 Exam Study GuideLogistics: Just a note that the first mid term exam is this coming Thursday during regular class time and willlast one hour.There will be 50 multiple choice questions, and the exam will last 1 hour.No electronics will be permitted, anyone seen with an electronic device will automatically receive a zero grade.Please bring a 2B pencil as we'll be using scantronsBring student IDReview Session●Prelude○What is geology■the scientific study of the Earth○Hutton's ideas on uniformitarianism■Uniformitarianism: Earth's geologic processes acted in the same manner and with essentially the same intensity in the past as they do in the present and that such uniformity is sufficient to account for all geologicchange.●Chapter 1○Irish Archbishop James Ussher: based his theory on how Earth formed on literal reading of Genesis; catastrophism ○Scottish Scholar James Hutton: founder of modern geology■Uniformitarianism: the present is the key to the past ○Doppler effect: the phenomenon in which the frequency of wave energy appears to change when a moving source of wave energy passes an observer (he described it as an ambulance coming toward you gets louder and louder and this is blueshift and as it leaves, the sound waves are stretched making them redshift) how it works, what it tells us, how that relates to the Big BangRedshift/blueshift is light's version of a phenomenon we experienceall the time with sound. -As sound moves towards you, sound waves are squeezedtogether and you hear them as being higher-pitched. -As sound moves away from you, sound waves are stretchedapart and you hear these stretched waves as being lower-pitched.Light is shifted to the red end of the spectrum when objects emittingit are moving away from us (redshift) and to the blue end of thespectrum when objects are moving towards us (blueshift).Astronomers have found that the further from us a star is, the moreits light is red-shifted. This tells us that distant galaxies are movingaway from us, and that the further a galaxy is the faster it is moving away. Since we cannot assume that we have a special place in the universe, this is evidence for a generally expanding universe. It suggests that everything is moving away from everything else. → The Big Bang theory says that this expansion started billions of years ago with an explosion.■Stars are predominantly made up of hydrogen, and are red shifted/ moving away from us→ universe is expanding
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○Scientific notation: how large numbers are written■ex: 1.2 x 10^18○Relative dating■Events are placed in a sequence relative to other events, without necessarily knowing their exact age (numerical or absolute age)○Epistemology■branch of philosophy that explores how we know what we know■the investigation of what distinguishes justified belief from opinion○Big Bang nucleosynthesis■After the Big Bang (13.7 billion years ago), hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, and boron were formed ○
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