of biblical proportions over cities and forests, yielding large amoun.docx

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of biblical proportions over cities and forests, yielding large amounts of soot (essentially black, or elemental, carbon) that could be injected by large smoke plumes into the upper atmosphere (the stratosphere is extremely stable, with very little weather or mixing, and thus soot injected into the stratosphere can persist for years to decades). Soot efficiently absorbs visible light, and thus a famous 1983 paper by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagan (the "TTAPS paper") [1], using a single-column radiative-convective model of the atmosphere column, concluded that a large nuclear war (5,000 megatons) would encircle the Earth in dust and soot, block most sunlight from reaching the surface, and result in global average temperatures well below freezing (-15 to -25 C) for several months: A "nuclear winter." While soot absorbs most incoming light, nuclear dust and other aerosols ejected to high altitude also scatter and reflect incoming light, essentially increasing the albedo of the Earth, and compounding the cooling effect of soot. Intense volcanic
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