Part C-Shale as an Energy Source Natural gas cannot flow out of some .docx

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Part C-Shale as an Energy Source Natural gas cannot flow out of some shale deposits naturally when the rock has low permeability. In this situation, a method called hydraulic fracturing can be used to extract natural gas. Shale is shattered by pumping fluids (water + chemicals + sand) into the gas-bearing shale unit. The pressure from the incoming fluid fractures the shale, sand grains prop the fractures open as the fluid is then pumped out of the ground, and then the gas can flow freely. Hydraulic fracturing, also called "fracking," is controversial because: 1. preexisting faults can be reactivated, which can cause small-sized earthquakes; 2. chemicals in the injected fluids can get into groundwater that is used for drinking water and 3. the wastewater is environmentally hazardous and can leak into soils; etc. Most of the wastewater produced by fracking is pumped back to the surface where it is stored in artificial ponds. Wastewater
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