Experiment 10 Solubility.docx - Experiment#10 Solubility...

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Experiment #10 Solubility Purpose: The purposes of this experiment are to investigate two important factors that affect solubility: polarity and temperature. Background: Solubility is a term used to describe the amount of solute that can dissolve in a solvent. If a large amount of solute can be dissolved we say that solute is soluble in that particular solvent. If a small amount of solute can be dissolved we say that solute is partially or slightly soluble. If virtually no solute can be dissolved we say that it is insoluble . Many factors affect solubility. Sometimes a solute will not dissolve in a particular solvent. Sometimes two different solvents will not mix with each other- for example oil and water. The extent to which one substance will dissolve in another depends on the structural properties of both substances. One such property is the degree of polarity in a molecule. Polarity and solubility have great biological significance since most biochemical reactions occur in an aqueous, or water based, medium. A rule of thumb is that "like dissolves like." For example, water is a highly polar molecule which exhibits strong intermolecular forces called hydrogen bonds. Thus water will tend to dissolve other polar substances, including ionic compounds like salts. Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents. Ionic solutes are considered the extreme in polarity and dissolve in ionic or very polar solvents. Nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents. Next, the effect of temperature on solubility will be demonstrated. There are limits as to how much solute may be dispersed or dissolved in a given amount of solvent. This limit is defined as the maximum weight of solute that dissolves in 100 g of a given solvent at a given temperature. For example, sucrose (table sugar) is soluble to the extent of 204 g per
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