Lecture 23 - Psychiatric Disorders.docx - Jessica Weissman BCS 110 Lecture 23 – Psychiatric Disorders Disorders of Psychological Function Human

Lecture 23 - Psychiatric Disorders.docx - Jessica Weissman...

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Jessica Weissman BCS 110 Lecture 23 – Psychiatric Disorders Disorders of Psychological Function Human behavior is the product of brain activity, and the brain is the product of two mutually interacting factors: heredity and environment. Health and illness are two points along a continuum of bodily function, and the same can be said for mental health and mental illness. Psychiatric disorders are altered processes of thought, mood or behavior that are sufficiently severe as to cause distress or impaired function and require treatment. Diagnosis is guided by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association. Five major psychiatric disorders are: Schizophrenia Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Affective (emotional) disorders Anxiety disorders Tourette’s syndrome Schizophrenia Schizophrenia means “the splitting of psychic functions”, i.e., the breakdown of integration of emotion, thought, and action. Disease most commonly associated with the concept of madness: affects 1% of the population. The following are some symptoms of schizophrenia; the recurrence of any two of which for one month is sufficient for diagnosis Positive symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, inappropriate affect, incoherent speech/thought, odd behavior VACC should be checking out your emotional behavior Negative symptoms: flat affect; alogia, avolition, anhedonia, catatonia Don’t want to speak, don’t want to do anything, don’t experience any pleasure from life activities, don’t move at all Causal factors (roughly at a 50/50 rate) genetics (rate in identical twins: 45%) experience (birth complications, infections, autoimmune reactions, injury, toxins, stress) Believe to be a neurodevelopmental disorder; diagnosis ~20 years old Schizophrenia: Genes and Brain Damage
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The study of schizophrenia-related genes is in its early stages. Various related genes have been shown to disrupt neural proliferation and migration and myelination. Consistent with the developmental effects, patients with schizophrenia have enlarged ventricles (top figure: arrows) and fissures, and have reduced volume (both gray and white matter) in many different brain regions (bottom figure: blue areas = normal volume; red areas = lower volume). Brain damage continues to worsen throughout life. Individual with schizophrenia has much larger ventricles Dopamine Theory of Schizophrenia Much of our understanding of the causes of schizophrenia comes from the drugs that mimic it or are able to treat it.
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  • Spring '08
  • Holtzman
  • Schizophrenia, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, affective disorders

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