SPCE 611 notes.docx - CH 1 COOPER Describe the basic...

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Unformatted text preview: CH 1 - COOPER Describe the basic characteristics and goals of science: * Scientific investigations lead to a further understanding of scientific knowledge, divided into three groups of understanding: - Description o Collection of facts about observed events that can be quantified, classified, & examined for possible relations with other known facts o Often suggests hypotheses or questions for additional research - Prediction o Relative probability that when one event occurs, another event will or will not occur o Based on repeated observation revealing systematic covariation between various events o Demonstrates correlation between events o No causal relationships can be interpreted o Enables preparation - Control –Highest level of scientific understanding – Functional relations can be derived from: •Specific change in one event (dependent variable)… •Can reliably be produced by specific manipulations of another event (independent variable)… •And the change in the dependent variable was unlikely to be the result of other extraneous factors (confounding variables) –Events can only really be “co-related” –Nearly impossible to factor out all other possible “causes” Explain behavior in accordance with the philosophical assumptions of behavior analysis: 1. Determinism: The universe is a lawful and orderly place. All events have causes. With perfect EXP control, you can get the same results. Variability happens b/c some events weren't controlled for. ex.) If I turn my key in the car's ignition, I assume that it will turn on if it's in working order. 2. Experimentation: Basic strategy for all science. Controls extraneous variables (in order to prove an FR exists). Evaluation f one cause over another. All variables are controlled except for the DV. ex.) Fluency trials: making sure that my bias for the client's improvement doesn't alter the results. 3. Empiricism: Scientific knowledge is built on this. Objective observation of behavior. Thoroughly described and quantified. Foremost rule in the science of behavior. (objectivity!) free from bias. The kind of info that should be gathered. ex.) sitting in the back of the classroom, taking notes on PB, without the client knowing you are there. (reactivity) 4. Parsimony: Practice of ruling out simple, logical explanations before using more complex explanations. How results are judged. ex.) Why is child crying in candy isle? Because of history of R. Not because of a personality disorder. 5. Philosophic Doubt: The truthfulness and validity of science should be questioned. Willing to abandon long held beliefs if better findings are found. How results are judged. ex.) Using ABBLS for INTL clients until something better comes along. 6. Replication: Repeating of EXP (or IV conditions). Best way to determine reliability, internal validity, and usefulness or results and discovery of mistakes. The greater the significance of the findings, the more replications are needed. ex.) for a particular client, DRA works better than DRI. This was proved through multiple trials <--- replication Explain determinism as it relates to behavior analysis: The occurrence of any event is determined by the FR it holds with other events. Natural phenomena=B so, natural phenomena is determined. This is an assumption with strong empirical support: remember that every time we take data, we prove that B is determined/caused by something. State distinguishing features of mentalistic and environmental explanations of behavior: Mentalism: approach of science that assumes that a mental/inner dimension exists that differs from a behavioral dimension and those phenomenons either directly cause or at least mediate some forms of behavior it relies on hypothetical constructs. Methodological behaviorism: use scientific manipulations to search for FR's b/w events. Private events- said that they are beyond the realm of scientific account. Radical Behaviorism: AKA Skinnerism. Use scientific manipulations to search for FR's b/w events. PRIVATE EVENTS ARE BEHAVIOR, they are different from observable/public events, and private events are influenced/the function of the same kinds of variables as outwardly shown behavior. Distinguish among the experimental analysis of behavior, applied behavior analysis, and behavioral technologies. EAB: A natural science approach to the study of behavior. Developed by Skinner. Features: rate of responses=DV, repeated/cont. measurement of response classes, w/in subject EXP comparison (instead of group design), emphasis on describing FR between behavior and controlling variables. ABA: the science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied systematically to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for behavior change. Behavioral technologies: collection of procedures that have arisen from research and are applied to practical problems by practitioners. Ex.) Behavioral momentum is now implemented by many service providers in clinics, schools, and homes Describe and explain behavior in behavior analytic terms Behavior: The activity of living organisms. An organism's interaction with the environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space/time and results in a measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment. Private Events: Behavior that falls under covert stimulus control. Clients are able to observe their own private events but the Behavior Analyst can't. State / describe each of the dimensions of ABA 1) Applied: Improving socially significant behaviors will enhance/improve people's lives. ex.) Improving the child's ability to talk over their ability to make the bed. 2) Behavioral: Behavior chosen for study must be the behavior in need of improvement, not a similar one. Behavior must be measurable. Necessary to ask whose behavior changed. Make sure that it was the subject's behavior that changed. ex.) If working on mands, make sure that you are improving mand ACQ versus tacts. 3) Analysis: A FR between the manipulated events. AKA: they are able to show experimental control over the occurrence and non-occurrence of behavior. ex.) Making sure that the DRA procedure that is used on OoSB is what is causing the in-seat behavior and is not an escape of reprimands. 4) Main/Gen: Lasts over time, appears in environment other than where the behavior started and/or if it spreads to other behaviors and/or other people. ex.) Once the child learns to talk, they are able to talk to others and this behavior lasts over time. 5) Conceptually systematic: Behavioral change interventions are derived from the basic principles of behavior. ex.) Instead of saying the child is clowning around instead of doing homework, say: he is escaping from doing class work. 6) Effective: Improves behavior sufficiently to produce practical results for the participant/client <-- social validity ex.) PB reduces in school and at home, both parents and teacher notice this. 7) Technological: When all of its operative procedures identified and described w/ sufficient detail and clarity so that a reader will be able to replicate the application w/ the same results. (Replicable technology). ex.) When implementing a TE, make sure that the procedures are operationally defined in a way that a teacher/parent/BA can do CHAPTER 2 - COOPER 1. Define behavior, response, and response class. - Behavior: o “The behavior of an organism is that portion of an organism’s interaction with the environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space through time of some part of the organism and that results in measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment” (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980, 1993a) o Behavior of an Organism ▪ Portion of the organism’s interaction with the environment ▪ “Displacement” … detectable displacement in space through time · Temporal locus : when in time a specific behavior occurs · Temporal extent: duration of a given behavioral event · Repeatability: frequency with which specified behavior occurs overtime ▪ Results in a measurable change in some aspect of the environment ( @ least one ) ▪ Involves movement, has an effect on the environment, and is measurable ▪ Everything that an organism does, including covert actions like thinking. Anything a person does that can be observed. ▪ Anything an organism does. Although the definition is too inclusive as it stands, it cannot easily be restricted further (e.g., to activity of muscles or glands). For example, a shift of attention need not involve eye movements but qualifies as behavior. See also Specific cases. - respondent and operant behaviors = examples - Response : A single occurrence of behavior o Behavior in reference to a larger set or class of responses sharing certain o Physical characteristics ( hand flapping behavior ) o Functions: study behavior o Response : “ action of an organisms effector” ( technical definition ) o Specific instance of behavior ▪ Descriptions of Behavior Structural and functional o Response topography ▪ Form ( physical shape ) (ex; hand and finger movements used to open a bag of peanuts can be described by their topographical elements ) ▪ Physical characteristics · Functional analysis ( behavior analysis is characterized by functional analysis) o Effects of behavior on the environment - Response Class: o A group of responses with the same function o Each response in the group produces the same effect on the environment o Effects of behavior on environment Define stimulus and stimulus class - Stimulus : A stimulus is any physical event or condition, including the organism's own behavior. A stimulus may have many different functional relations to an organism's repertoire. It may be an eliciting stimulus for a response in a reflex. It may serve as a discriminative stimulus which precedes an operant performance. It may be a conditioned reinforcer or a primary reinforcer which follows an operant performance and increases its frequency. It may be an aversive stimulus whose termination increases the frequency of an operant performance. Finally, it may have no demonstrable effect on the organism's repertoire. - Stimulus class A collection of individual stimuli that are functionally related to a response class. A set of stimuli, all of which have some common property. is a set of related stimuli. Stimuli that vary across physical dimensions but have a common effect on behavior. –Formal dimensions of stimuli ( Behavior analyst often describes, measures, manipulates stimuli according to formal dimensions) –Temporal loci of stimuli ( location of it ) –Behavioral functions of stimuli change ( immediate, powerful control vs. no effect) Define and state examples of positive and negative reinforcement Positive Reinforcement: presenting a motivating/reinforcing stimulus to the person after the desired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior more likely to happen in the future. - Examples o A mother gives her son praise (positive stimulus) for doing homework (behavior). o The little boy receives $5.00 (positive stimulus) for every A he earns on his report card (behavior). o A father gives his daughter candy (positive stimulus) for cleaning up toys (behavior). Negative Reinforcement : - occurs when a certain stimulus (usually an aversive stimulus) is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. The likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative consequence. - should not be thought of as a punishment procedure. With negative reinforcement, you are increasing a behavior, whereas with punishment, you are decreasing a behavior. - Examples: o Bob does the dishes (behavior) in order to avoid his mother nagging (negative stimulus). o Natalie can get up from the dinner table (negative stimulus) when she eats 2 bites of her broccoli (behavior). Define and provide examples of conditioned and unconditioned reinforcement. - (Stimulus changes that function as reinforcers and punishers) •Unconditioned reinforcement and punishment ( satiation, deprivation) –Function irrespective of prior learning history –A stimulus that is reinforcing without prior learning or conditioning. –Ex: Food for a hungry person, warmth for a cold person • Conditioned reinforcers and punishers –Function as such based on previous pairings with other reinforcers and punishers –A conditioned reinforcer is a stimulus that was not originally reinforcing but has become reinforcing by being paired or associated with other reinforcers. –Ex: picture of a loved one, favorite TV show. Define and state examples of positive punishment and negative punishment - Positive Punishment: Positive punishment works by presenting a negative consequence after an undesired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior less likely to happen in the future. The following are some examples of positive punishment: o A child picks his nose during class (behavior) and the teacher reprimands him (negative stimulus) in front of his classmates. o A child grabs a toy from another child (behavior) and is sent to time out (negative stimulus) - Negative Punishment: happens when a certain desired stimulus is removed after a particular undesired behavior is exhibited, resulting in the behavior happening less often in the future. o For a child that really enjoys a specific class, such as gym or music classes at school, negative punishment can happen if they are removed from that class (desired stimulus) and sent to the principal’s office because they were acting out/misbehaving (behavior). o If a child does not follow directions or acts inappropriately (behavior), he loses a token for good behavior (desired stimulus) that can later be cashed in for a prize. o Siblings get in a fight (behavior) over who gets to go first in a game or who gets to play with a new toy, the parent takes the game/toy away (desired stimulus). Define and provide examples of stimulus control. •Stimulus Control – Differential rates of operant responding observed in the presence or absence of antecedent stimuli –Due to pairings (antecedent/consequence) in the past, antecedents acquire the ability to control operant behavior Define and provide examples of establishing operations. Motivating Operations •Function –Alters the current value of stimulus changes as reinforcement or punishment •Satiation •Deprivation - A procedure that affects learning and performance with respect to a particular reinforcer or aversive condition. - An antecedent event or change in the environment that alters the effectiveness of the reinforcer and the rates of the responses that have produced that reinforcer previously. Having just eaten a large meal will diminish the effectiveness of edible reinforcers. Similarly, deprivation will increase the effectiveness of reinforcers. 10 - Aversive stimuli and extinction are establishing operations for aggression reinforcers. Describe a behavioral contingency. Three-Term Contingency •Antecedent (A) – Behavior (B) – Consequence (C) –Basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior –All ABA procedures involve the manipulation of one or more components of the three-term contingency –Antecedent: Traffic light turns red Behavior: Press foot onto brakes Consequence: Stop at intersection Antecedent: Teacher flicks lights on and off Behavior: Students lower their voices Consequence: Class is quiet Describe and provide an example for the respondent conditioning paradigm. · Before conditioning- tap on the knee o US- tap on the knee -> knee jerk response o NS- edible ->no knee jerk · Respondent conditioning o NS and US (tap and edible with trials) ->(CS) knee jerk response · Product of Respondent conditioning o US ->knee jerk response o CS ->knee jerk response Behaviors are elicited by prior stimuli and are not affected by their consequences •Experimental demonstrations of respondent conditioning –Ivan Petrovich Pavlov –Digestive systems of dogs –Animals salivated every time lab assistant opened the cage door to feed them •See Figure 2-1, pg. 31 in text •Process and selective effects of consequences on behavior •“Functional consequence” –Stimulus change that follows a given behavior in a relatively immediate temporal sequence and alters the frequency of that type of behavior in the future •“Strengthen” an operant –Response more probable, more frequent (Skinner, 1953, p. 65) • Reinforcement has taken place when –Operant conditioning consists of an increase in response frequency •Consequences can only affect future behavior •Consequences select response class, no individual responses • Immediate consequences have the greatest effect •Consequences select any behavior – Reinforcement and punishment are equal opportunity selectors –Importance of temporal relations ( between behavior / consequence that is functional) •Operant conditioning occurs automatically What are two other names for respondent conditioning? Pavlovian conditioning Classical conditioning EXAMPLES: Salivating when smelling dinner cooking Feeling frightened when watching a scary movie Blushing when told that your fly or blouse is undone Becoming sexually aroused when watching X-rated movies State the principle of respondent conditioning. Clearly diagram an example of respondent conditioning that is not in the text. If an neutral stimulus (NS) is followed closely in time by an unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits a unconditioned response (UR), then the previous NS will also tend to elicit the response in the future. Describe and provide an example for the operant conditioning paradigm. A type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences Ex: Learned not to touch a hot stove because of the pain following past instances of doing so Describe the conditioning procedures and the results of conditioning for operant conditioning (positive reinforcement). : In the presence of a stimulus a response is followed by a reinforcer. Result response is more likely to occur to prior stimulus, now called an Sd Describe the extinction procedure and the results of extinction for operant conditioning and respondent conditioning.: A response is no longer followed by a reinforcer. The result is response is less likely to occur to the former Sd ( examples of operant and respondent conditioning) CH 3 – COOPER 1. Understand and explain the role of assessment in applied behavior analysis. Assessment results in the most ethical, appropriate, and socially valid determination of target behaviors to be changed. A correct understanding of the behavior leads to better information for designing an effective intervention. to discover the function a behavior serves in a persons environment provide a picture of the variables that increase, decrease, maintain and generalize the behavior of interest - Interviews o Interviewing the Individual ▪ Identify list of potential target behaviors · what and when questions · Avoid “why” ▪ Identify primary concerns · Verified through further data collection ▪ Direct assessment method ▪ Use of questionnaires or self-monitoring (useful in selecting and defining target behaviors for further assessment or for intervention) o Interviewing Significant Others ▪ Develop behavioral descriptions · What, when, how (Behavior analyst can help significant other describe problem in terms of specific behaviors and environmental conditions and events associated with those behaviors) · Avoid “why” ▪ Move from general terms to specific ▪ Determine participation - Checklists o Descriptions of specific behaviors and conditions under which each should occur o Alone or with interview o Typically Likert-scale assessments o Ask about antecedent and consequence events ( may affect frequency, intensity or duration of behaviors) o Child Behavior Checklist o Adaptive Behavior Scale – School o Adaptive Behavior Scale - Residential and Community - Tests o Consistent administration ▪ Compares perfor...
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