Ch18-Electric Fields and Electric Forces Lecture.pptx - Chapter 18 ELECTRIC FORCES AND ELECTRIC FIELDS Outline 1 The origin of electricity 2 Charged

# Ch18-Electric Fields and Electric Forces Lecture.pptx -...

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Chapter 18 ELECTRIC FORCES AND ELECTRIC FIELDS

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Outline 1. The origin of electricity 2. Charged objects and the electric force 3. Conductors and insulators 4. Charging by contact and by induction 5. Coulomb’s Law 6. Electric field 7. The electric field inside a conductor: shielding 8. Gauss’ law
18.1 The Origin of Electricity The electrical nature of matter is inherent in atomic structure. (mass of a proton) (mass of a neutron) (mass of an electron) (electric charge of an electron) Coulomb An atom consists of small, relatively small nucleus that contains protons and neutrons. Surrounding the nucleus is a diffuse cloud of orbiting electrons. kg 10 673 . 1 27 p m kg 10 675 . 1 27 n m kg 10 11 . 9 31 e m C 10 60 . 1 19 e

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18.1 The Origin of Electricity In nature, atoms are normally found with equal numbers of protons and electrons, so they are electrically neutral. By adding or removing electrons from matter it will acquire a net electric charge (q) with magnitude equal to e times the number of electrons added or removed, N . An atom consists of small, relatively small nucleus that contains protons and neutrons. Surrounding the nucleus is a diffuse cloud of orbiting electrons. Ne q
Example 1: A Lot of Electrons How many electrons are there in one coulomb of negative charge? Ne q 18 19 - 10 25 . 6 C 10 1.60 C 00 . 1 e q N

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18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force When an ebonite rod is rubbed against animal fur, electrons from atoms of the fur are transferred to the rod. It is possible to transfer electric charge from one object to another. The body that loses electrons has an excess of positive charge ( positive ion ), while the body that gains electrons ( negative ion ) has an excess of negative charge. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ELECTRIC CHARGE During any process, the net electric charge of an isolated system remains constant (is conserved).
18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force Like charges repel and unlike charges attract each other.

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18.3 Conducto rs and Insulator s Not only can electric charge exist on an object, but it can also move through an object.
• Spring '10
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• Electric charge, Electric Forces

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