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Unformatted text preview: The Science of Nutrition Study Questions What is the purpose of science? To understand how nature works by using trial and error Anecdotal evidence What is anectdotal evidence? Evidence of an individual nature, without rigorous examination; personal experience What are pitfalls of anecdotes? Unreliable; different causes; placebo effect; safety risk How else might you go about learning the truth in the matter? Use science to collect and analyze anecdotal evidence to help us measure and compare the risks and benefits of a treatment Scientific Method What is the scientific method? Begin with question, form ? into hypothesis, test hypothesis by conducting experiment and evaluating the outcome, repeat as needed Experimental Design What is the experimental group? Recieves treatment What is the control group? Recieves no treatment; used as comparison for experimental group Exclusive of treatment, how should the groups compare? Identical What is the difference between observation collect data without intervening in subjects life and intervention make a change ? Experimental Design in Nutrition Epidemiological studies What is a natural experiment? Conducted without ppl knowing What is an epidemiological study? Natural experiment that a population conducts on itself What do we mean by exposure? Hypothetical cause of an outcome; experimental factor the researcher is looking at What do we mean by outcome? Measure being studied Do you see more variation in exposure in a large or a small population? large What is correlation? Relationship between two associated things (does not prove cause/effect) What does it mean if differences in outcome correlate with exposure? There is an association, but one did not necessarily cause the other Does correlation prove causality? no Case control studies What is a case control study? Anecdotal evidence published in scientific journal; prove nothing, but can give direction for research Animal studies Human intervention studies Considerations in human trials What are the ethical limitations in human trials? cannot risk doing things that may be harmful or that do not give them the most benefit What is randomization? Randomly assign study subjects to experiemental or control groups; even out numbers of people with different characteristics in each group What is a placebo? Drug/substance with no inherent treatment value which affects an individual through the psychological power of their belief in its efficiency What do we mean by double-blind? Neither the researcher nor the study subject knows which treatment the subject is getting Generalizability vs. control What do we mean by generalizability? Degree to which one finding can be assumed to apply to some other group or situation By control? The only difference between groups of subjects is the experiemental variable you are researching What type of study gives the most generalizability? Human The most control? Animal Evaluating Reports Where does one look for the most reliable studies? Where does one look for the most reliable studies?...
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- Spring '08