Darwinian evolution - Lengths of DNA made of multiple genes...

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15/02/2008 09:01:00 Darwinian evolution Does not always mean progressive change o Not about increased complexity Natural selection works on the most fit o Specific to each environment o Environments change o Sometimes species are no longer fit Not a constant process Genetics and evolution Darwin’s missing keys o How inheritance worked Mendelian genetics o Where variation came from Biochemical genetics o The mechanisms of population change Population genetics Mendelian genetics Heredity is based on discrete particles of inheritance o Genes Principle of dominance and recessive Physical traits expressed are dominant, traits that are not  are recessive Principle of segregation An individual gets one gene from each parent making  one gene pair Principle of independent assortment Each gene pair separates independently of every other  pair and recombines through fertilization
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o Chromosomes Basic genetic units, occurring in pairs
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Unformatted text preview: Lengths of DNA made of multiple genes o Allele Variants of a single gene o Homozygous Identical alleles for a given chromosome o Heterozygous Dissimilar alleles for a given chromosome o Genotype An organism’s hereditary makeup • Punnett squares ← Biochemical genetics • Neither Darwin nor Mendel knew where new traits came from • Cell division o Mitosis o Meiosis Homologous pairs separate The copies of each chromosome separate into gametes Crossing over Chromosomes intertwine and exchange segments of DNA Mutations Changes in DNA molecules Spontaneous, regular, and random alteration of genetic material that produces new variation • Base substitution • Chromosomal reattachment Ultimate source of all new variation 15/02/2008 09:01:00 ← 15/02/2008 09:01:00 ←...
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