conlangsdecal-reader-0001.doc - Conlangs DE-Cal \u2013 Spring 2006 Ling 98\/198 Constructing Languages DE-Cal Spring 2006 UC Berkeley By Sai Emrys a.k.a

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Unformatted text preview: Conlangs DE-Cal – Spring 2006 Ling 98/198: Constructing Languages DE-Cal Spring 2006, UC Berkeley By Sai Emrys, a.k.a. Ilya Starikov – [email protected] Table of Contents NOTES ON THIS READER............................................................................................................................7 CXS/IPA CHART...........................................................................................................................................8 CLASS SYLLABUS.......................................................................................................................................9 GENESIS 11:1-10.........................................................................................................................................17 CONLANGER’S MANIFESTO.................................................................................................................19 THE CONSTRUCTION OF LAADAN.....................................................................................................25 TASTE FOR MAKERS...............................................................................................................................29 EXCERPT FROM DESCRIBING MORPHOSYNTAX: A GUIDE FOR FIELD LINGUISTS..........39 MODEL LANGUAGES NEWSLETTER..................................................................................................51 ON THE DESIGN OF AN IDEAL LANGUAGE....................................................................................149 GOOD GLOSSES.......................................................................................................................................159 HOW TO MAKE GOOD GLOSSES.......................................................................................................161 APOLOGIA PRO IMAGINATIONE.......................................................................................................167 GLOSSOPOEIA FOR FUN AND PROFIT.............................................................................................171 NOTES ON LANGUAGE CREATION AND ERGATIVITY...............................................................179 THE LANGUAGE CREATION KIT.......................................................................................................213 WHAT IS WRITING?...............................................................................................................................243 HOW TO CREATE A LANGUAGE........................................................................................................297 Conlang Errors..............................................................................................................................................347 -1- Conlangs DE-Cal – Spring 2006 Detailed table of contents NOTES ON THIS READER............................................................................................................................7 CXS/IPA CHART...........................................................................................................................................8 CLASS SYLLABUS.......................................................................................................................................9 SYNOPSIS:.....................................................................................................................................................9 TIMING:......................................................................................................................................................10 GRADING....................................................................................................................................................10 GOALS: WHAT YOU SHOULD GET OUT OF THIS CLASS...............................................................................10 LINGUISTIC BACKGROUND.........................................................................................................................11 COURSE WEBSITE / LJ COMMUNITY..........................................................................................................11 SOME OTHER USEFUL SITES........................................................................................................................11 READER/SYLLABUS:...................................................................................................................................13 TEXTS / READING MATERIALS:...................................................................................................................13 THE FINAL PROJECT / RESEARCH PAPER...................................................................................................14 SCHEDULE:.................................................................................................................................................15 GENESIS 11:1-10.........................................................................................................................................17 CONLANGER’S MANIFESTO.................................................................................................................19 MANIFESTO................................................................................................................................................19 THE ARTLANGER’S RANT...........................................................................................................................20 THE CONSTRUCTION OF LAADAN.....................................................................................................25 TASTE FOR MAKERS...............................................................................................................................29 EXCERPT FROM DESCRIBING MORPHOSYNTAX: A GUIDE FOR FIELD LINGUISTS..........39 MODEL LANGUAGES NEWSLETTER..................................................................................................51 PREFACE.....................................................................................................................................................51 VOLUME I, ISSUE 1 -- MAY 1, 1995.............................................................................................................53 An introduction to the hobby of model languages................................................................................53 Different types of model languages......................................................................................................54 This newsletter's goals..........................................................................................................................55 VOLUME I, ISSUE 2 -- JUNE 1, 1995............................................................................................................57 Inventing a language for naming people and places............................................................................57 Language change..................................................................................................................................57 An ancestral language -- the grandmother tongue...............................................................................58 Sound....................................................................................................................................................59 Sound change........................................................................................................................................61 Spelling.................................................................................................................................................64 Words....................................................................................................................................................65 Grammar..............................................................................................................................................65 Proper names........................................................................................................................................65 Place names..........................................................................................................................................67 Example - quickly create your own naming languages........................................................................70 GYMNASTICS WITH ONOMASTICS..................................................................................................................73 Structure of names................................................................................................................................73 Patronymics: in the name of the father.................................................................................................74 Forming first names first......................................................................................................................75 Forming family names..........................................................................................................................76 Forming names of nations....................................................................................................................77 Cultural attitudes towards names.........................................................................................................78 VOLUME I, ISSUE 3 (2/2) -- JULY 1, 1995..................................................................................................80 Possibilities and purposes for model languages..................................................................................80 -3- Conlangs DE-Cal – Spring 2006 Classifying by scope.............................................................................................................................81 Classifying by time-frame of speakers..................................................................................................81 Classifying model languages................................................................................................................82 Naming languages................................................................................................................................83 Alternate languages..............................................................................................................................83 Future languages..................................................................................................................................84 Auxiliary languages..............................................................................................................................84 VOLUME I, ISSUE 4 -- AUGUST 1, 1995......................................................................................................85 Meaning change...................................................................................................................................86 Categories of semantic change.............................................................................................................90 Meaning change across languages.......................................................................................................99 Meaning change through time..............................................................................................................99 VOLUME I, ISSUE 5 -- SEPTEMBER 1, 1995..............................................................................................103 Sen:esepera -- A Reform Of Esperanto..............................................................................................103 VOLUME I, ISSUE 6 (1/2) -- OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 1, 1995.....................................................................111 Meaning...............................................................................................................................................111 The bother of brother..........................................................................................................................114 Translations (meanings across languages).........................................................................................116 Prototypes for the birds.......................................................................................................................118 Kinship Terms.....................................................................................................................................120 VOLUME I, ISSUE 6 (2/2) -- OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 1, 1995.....................................................................120 ON TOLKIEN..............................................................................................................................................130 Chronological development of tolkien's principal model languages.................................................131 Characteristics of the Middle-Earth languages.................................................................................133 For further reading.............................................................................................................................138 EMULATING TOLKIEN................................................................................................................................140 ON THE DESIGN OF AN IDEAL LANGUAGE....................................................................................149 PRINCIPLE OF LEAST EFFORT...................................................................................................................150 PRINCIPLE OF SEMANTIC DENSITY...........................................................................................................150 PRINCIPLE OF DESIRED CLARITY.............................................................................................................151 PRINCIPLE OF DEFAULT SIMPLICITY.........................................................................................................152 PRINCIPLE OF ICONICITY..........................................................................................................................152 PRINCIPLE OF CROSS-MODALITY.............................................................................................................152 PRINCIPLE OF SEMANTIC CONSERVATION................................................................................................153 TEMPORAL ORDER...................................................................................................................................154 ANALOG VS. QUANTUM DESCRIPTORS....................................................................................................154 PURPOSELY WASTING SPACE...................................................................................................................155 COMBINING/UTILIZING INPUT STREAMS..................................................................................................155 GOOD GLOSSES.......................................................................................................................................159 HOW TO MAKE GOOD GLOSSES.......................................................................................................161 APOLOGIA PRO IMAGINATIONE.......................................................................................................167 GLOSSOPOEIA FOR FUN AND PROFIT.............................................................................................171 NOTES ON LANGUAGE CREATION AND ERGATIVITY...............................................................179 PREFACE...................................................................................................................................................179 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................................180 ERGATIVITY..............................................................................................................................................183 Introducing Terms...............................................................................................................................183 Introducing Some Test Words.............................................................................................................184 The Pristine System............................................................................................................................185 A Pristine Nominative-Accusative System.....................................................................................................185 A Pristine Ergative-Absolutive System..........................................................................................................188 Syntactic Ergativity.............................................................................................................................190 -4- Conlangs DE-Cal – Spring 2006 A Pristine Syntactic Nominative-Accusative System.....................................................................................190 A Pristine Syntactic Ergative-Absolutive System...........................................................................................191 Split-Sensitivity...................................................................................................................................192 Tense-Based Split-Ergativity.........................................................................................................................192 Pronominally-Based Split-Ergativity............................................................................................................194 Semantically-Based Split-Ergativity..............................................................................................................197 Animacy-Based Split-Ergativity....................................................................................................................201 Mixing Systems...................................................................................................................................204 Something Else to Consider: Ditransitives.........................................................................................205 Impossibilities.....................................................................................................................................207 Conclusion..........................................................................................................................................210 References and Thanks.......................................................................................................................210 THE LANGUAGE CREATION KIT.......................................................................................................213 MODELS...................................................................................................................................................213 Natural and unnatural languages......................................................................................................213 Non-Western (or at least non-English) models...................................................................................213 SOUNDS....................................................................................................................................................213 Types of consonants............................................................................................................................214 Inventing consonants..........................................................................................................................215 Vowels...............................................................................................................................
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