Disaster in Chernobyl.ppt - disaster The worst manmade disaster in human history Czech Technical University In Prague 23 May 2007 Where is Chernobyl 23

Disaster in Chernobyl.ppt - disaster The worst manmade...

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Unformatted text preview: disaster The worst manmade disaster in human history Czech Technical University In Prague 23 May 2007 Where is Chernobyl? 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 2 Chernobyl • Built in 1978-1979 • Chornobyl 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 3 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 4 Background • Reaktor Bolshoy Moshehnosty Kipyashiy • RBMK, a Russian acronym translated roughly means “reactor (of) high power (of the) channel (type)” • reactor cooled by water and moderated by graphite 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 5 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 6 RBMK Reactor 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 7 Fuel assemblies 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 8 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 9 Reactor Plant Scenario 1. As the reaction occurs, the uranium fuel becomes hot 2. The water pumped through the core in pressure tubes removes the heat from the fuel 3. The water is then boiled into steam 4. The steam turns the turbines 5. The water is then cooled 6. Then the process repeats 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 10 Day of disaster 25 April 1986 • 01:00 The preparation for the test • 13:47 Lowering of the reactor power halted at 1,600 MWt • 14:00 The ECCS was isolated • 23:10 The power reduction resumed 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 11 26 April 1986 • 24:00 Operation shift change • 24:28 Power level is now 500 MWt and kept decreasing to 30 MWt • 24:40 The operator withdrew some control rods • 01:00 Power had risen to 200 MWt • 01:03 Connecting the fourth main cooling pump to the left loop of the system 200 MWt • 01:07 Connecting the fourth main cooling pump to the right of the loop system - this was a violation of NOP 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 12 26 April 1986 (cont.) • 01:19 Increased feed water flow to the steam drums and removed more control rods -violation of NOP • 01:23 The test was started • 01:23:10 Automatic rods withdrawn from the core • 01:23:21 Two groups of automated control rods were back to the core 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 13 26 April 1986 (cont.) • 01:23:30 • 01:23:40 • 01:23:44 • 01:23:48 • 01:23:55 23 May 2007 Power kept increasing Emergency button pushed Power is at 300000 MWth 1st thermal explosion 2nd explosion Czech Technical University in Pra gue 14 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 15 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 16 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 17 Human Errors • Isolation of the emergency core cooling system • Unsafe amount of control rods withdrawn • Connection of the four main cooling pumps to the right and left of the system 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 18 Human Errors (cont.) • Mental model – The operator did not have a good mental model of the system itself • Overconfidence – By having an electrical engineer on site for an electrical test – No confirmation of cues obtained from the system • Beta too high – Many missed signals before the accident 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 19 Accident Prevention 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 20 System Analysis • Use of graphite as a moderator • Lack of a well-built containment structure • Inadequate instrumentation and alarms for an emergency situation • There were no physical controls that prevented the operators from operating the reactor in its unstable state 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 21 Summary of Facts • April 26, 1986: – Chernobyl nuclear power plant • Operator errors cause a reactor explosion • Explosion releases 190 tons of radioactive gasses into the atmosphere • Fire starts that lasts 10 days • People: – 7 million lived in contaminated areas; 3 million were children • Wind: – Carries radiation far distances 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 22 Far Reaching Radiation 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 23 Radioactive fallout 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 24 Direct Casualties • 5.5 million people still live in contaminated areas • 31 people died in 3 months of radiation poisoning • 134 emergency workers suffered from acute radiation sickness • 25,000 rescue workers died since then of diseases caused by radiation • Cancer afflicts many others • Increased birth defects, miscarriages, and stillbirths 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 25 Indirect Casualties – By the year 2000 there were 1800 case of thyroid cancer in children and adolescent – High number of suicide and violent death among Firemen, policemen, and other recovery workers 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 26 Environment Impact • Areas still impacted today: – – – – Soil Ground Water Air Food • Crops • Livestock 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 27 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 28 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 29 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 30 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 31 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 32 Problems Today • The Sarcophagus – After the disaster, a huge cement box was built around the radioactive material – It is falling apart! – According to a 2003 report by the Russian Atomic Energy Minister, Alexander Rumyantsev, "the concrete shell surrounding the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is in real danger of collapsing at any time." – A new Sarcophagus is scheduled to be completed in 2009 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 33 Recommendations • Have proper Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for both normal and emergency situations • Have scheduled trainings and practices for normal and emergency situations 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 34 Recommendations (cont.) • Always have a reactor expert on site • Have operators confirm any cues from the system before making hypothesis or take action • Have a team work kind of environment such that every body is involved 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 35 23 May 2007 Czech Technical University in Pra gue 36 ...
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  • Spring '18
  • Eva Mira
  • Chernobyl disaster, Czech Technical University in Pra

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