FED Chapter 2.docx - FED Chapter 2 The Constitution I II Before the Constitution A The British Constitution a Constitution= document or set of documents

FED Chapter 2.docx - FED Chapter 2 The Constitution I II...

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FED Chapter 2: The Constitution I. Before the Constitution A. The British Constitution a. Constitution = document or set of documents that establish the basic rules and procedures for how a society shall be governed b. Magna Carta (1215) = defined the rights of the people, Parliament, and power of the King B. Toward Independence a. Higher taxes imposed on colonists than the people in Great Britain i. Sugar Act of 1764 = set forth a long list of items that could be exported only to Great Britain, limiting competition for the colonists’ goods ii. Stamp Act of 1765 = established a tax on virtually all forms of paper used by the colonists C. The Declaration of Independence = 1776 document declaring American independence from Great Britain and calling for equality, human rights, and citizen participation a. Jefferson relied on writings of John Locke b. A radical document c. Declared the 13 colonies to be “free and independent states” D. The Articles of Confederation = Initial governing authority of the United States, 1781–88 a. Required unanimous consent for adoption b. Formally established “the United States of America” c. Limited government power d. Weak national government led to revolt (Shay’s Rebellion) II. The Constitutional Convention = Meeting in 1787 at which twelve states intended to revise the Articles of Confederation but ended up proposing an entirely new Constitution A. The Delegates a. All were white males in their 30s or 40s b. James Madison = drafted most of the Constitution B. Large vs Small States a. Virginia plan = supported by the larger states (Madison) ; called for Congressional representation to be based off of population b. New Jersey Plan = supported by the smaller states (Patterson); called for equal representation in Congress c. Connecticut Compromise = Compromise on legislative representation whereby the lower chamber is based on population, and the upper chamber provides equal representation to the states C.
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