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Unformatted text preview: EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing Song Guo Deze Zeng Editors Cyber-Physical Systems: Architecture, Security and Application EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing Series editor Imrich Chlamtac, CreateNet, Trento, Italy Editor’s Note The impact of information technologies is creating a new world yet not fully understood. The extent and speed of economic, life style and social changes already perceived in everyday life is hard to estimate without understanding the technological driving forces behind it. This series presents contributed volumes featuring the latest research and development in the various information engineering technologies that play a key role in this process. The range of topics, focusing primarily on communications and computing engineering include, but hardly limited to, wireless networks; mobile communication; design and learning; gaming; interaction; e-health and pervasive healthcare; energy management; smart grids; internet of things; cognitive radio networks; computation; cloud computing; ubiquitous connectivity, and in mode general smart living, smart cities, Internet of Things and more. The series publishes a combination of expanded papers selected from hosted and sponsored European Alliance for Innovation (EAI) conferences that present cutting edge, global research as well as provide new perspectives on traditional related engineering fields. This content, complemented with open calls for contribution of book titles and individual chapters, together maintain Springer’s and EAI’s high standards of academic excellence. The audience for the books consists of researchers, industry professionals, advanced level students as well as practitioners in related fields of activity include information and communication specialists, security experts, economists, urban planners, doctors, and in general representatives in all those walks of life affected ad contributing to the information revolution. About EAI EAI is a grassroots member organization initiated through cooperation between businesses, public, private and government organizations to address the global challenges of Europe’s future competitiveness and link the European Research community with its counterparts around the globe. EAI tens of thousands of members on all continents together with its institutional members base consisting of some of the largest companies in the world, government organizations, educational institutions, strive to provide a research and innovation platform which recognizes excellence and links top ideas with markets through its innovation programs. Throughs its open free membership model EAI promotes a new research and innovation culture based on collaboration, connectivity and excellent recognition by community. More information about this series at Song Guo • Deze Zeng Editors Cyber-Physical Systems: Architecture, Security and Application 123 Editors Song Guo Department of Computing Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong, China Deze Zeng School of Computer Science China University of Geosciences Wuhan, Hubei, China ISSN 2522-8595 ISSN 2522-8609 (electronic) EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing ISBN 978-3-319-92563-9 ISBN 978-3-319-92564-6 (eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2018948682 © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors, and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland Preface Over the last two decades, much effort has been devoted to promoting the integration and interaction between the cyber and physical parts of our world. This motivates the concept of Cyber-Physical System (CPS), which has already attracted attention from the government, academia and industry. Regarding the interaction of the cyber world with the physical world, a hot topic emerging is the Internet-of-Things (IoT), which describes the vision that everything is interconnected. CPS is similar to IoT but presents a higher combination and coordination between the physical and informational world. CPS has been applied in a variety of domains such as: industry, agriculture, transportation, and electricity system (e.g., smart grid), imposing huge potential in promoting the life quality of human beings. CPS is a cross-discipline topic covering a wide range of fields from hardware to software, like integrated circuit, embedded system, control, computation, communication, system integration, and so on. The development on each field shall advance the development of CPS. It is significant to investigate how to advance the development of CPS, especially with joint consideration of other newly emerging computing and communication technology or concept like cloud computing, big data, fog computing, crowdsourcing, and so on, from various aspects such as architecture, application, security, and privacy. To this end, we invited pioneering researchers and engineers to discuss some key issues from these aspects and to present some insightful opinions, concepts, innovations and achievements in CPS. Various new CPS technologies from diverse aspects enable a higher level of innovation towards intelligent life are discussed in this book. It provides deep insight to the future integration, coordination and interaction between the physical world, the information world and our human beings. These works shall inspire more future studies to further advance the development and exploitation of CPS. v vi Preface Last but not least, we would like to thank all the chapter authors for their invaluable sharing and contributions. We would like to thank the kind support from the EAI/Springer Innovations in Communications and Computing book series editor Dr. Imrich Chlamtac. We also appreciate the hardworking of all the people who work together to push forward the publication of the book. Hong Kong, China Wuhan, China Song Guo Deze Zeng Contents Part I Architecture and Applications 1 2 Envisioned Network Architectures for IoT Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P. Sarwesh, N. Shekar V. Shet, and K. Chandrasekaran 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Network Level Challenges in IoT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Energy Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Reliability and QoS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Factors that Affect the Network Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Energy Hole (Node Overload) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Multi-Retransmissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.3 Collision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 Control Packet Overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.5 Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.6 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Envisioned Network Architecture for Low Power IoT Networks . . . . 1.4.1 E-Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.2 Environmental Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.3 Industrial Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.4 Smart Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Suitability of Proposed Network Architectures for IoT Scenario and Network Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Measurement Study of Campus WiFi Networks Using WiFiTracer. Chengwei Zhang, Xiaojun Hei, and Brahim Bensaou 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 WiFi Measurement Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Measurement Framework Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 WiFiTracer Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Measurement Sampling Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 11 13 16 16 16 19 20 21 22 22 24 vii viii Contents 2.3 Sensing Result Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Basic WiFi Dataset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 General Analysis of WiFi Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 Characterizing Public Campus WiFi Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Characterization of WiFi Connection Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 WiFi Connection Dataset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Characterizing Successful WiFi Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 5 People as Sensors: Towards a Human–Machine Cooperation Approach in Monitoring Landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zhenhua Li, Guoxuan Cheng, Wenming Cheng, and Hongbo Mei 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Project Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 The Sensor-Based Monitor System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 The Remote Sensing Monitoring System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 The GPS System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 The Comprehensive Monitoring System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 The Human-Based Monitoring System: People as Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 The Monitoring and Early Warning Platform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two Major Applications in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Binbin Zhou, Zhan Zhou, Gang Pan, Shijian Li, Hexin Lv, and Tiaojuan Ren 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Rear-End Collision Warning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Problem Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Our Collaborative Real-Time Rear-End Collision Warning Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Automatic Incidents Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Problem Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Our Automatic Incidents Detection Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Experiments and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concurrency and Synchronization in Structured Cyber Physical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jitender Grover and Ram Murthy Garimella 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 26 26 30 35 35 36 39 40 40 43 43 44 44 45 45 47 47 49 50 52 55 56 57 58 59 62 64 65 65 67 69 70 73 74 Contents 5.2 Concurrent Cyber Physical Systems: Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Concurrency in Cyber Physical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Coordination and Maintenance of Concurrent Cyber Physical Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3 Design Issues: Concurrent CPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.4 Modeling Linear Concurrent CPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Synchronization of Concurrent Cyber Physical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Networked Cyber Physical Systems: Synchronization . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Clock’s Synchronization: Multidimensional CPSs . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Temporal Semantics: Design of Cyber Physical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Classification of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 Real-Time CPSs: Temporal Semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3 Software System: Temporal Semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Reliability and Fault Tolerance: Concurrent Cyber Physical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 Fault Tolerance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.2 Fault/Failure Localization: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Architectural Considerations: Cyber Physical Systems . . . . . . . 5.5.4 Reliability and Fault Management Using Edge Servers . . . . . . 5.6 Agent Working in Different Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix 78 78 79 80 80 83 83 84 84 85 86 88 89 89 89 90 91 92 94 94 Part II Security and Privacy 6 Survey on Access Control Models Feasible in Cyber-Physical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mikel Uriarte, Jasone Astorga, Eduardo Jacob, Maider Huarte, and Oscar López 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Context-Related Features and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Constrained Device Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 Constrained Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.3 Life Cycle and Access Control Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.4 Use-Case-Driven Access Control Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.5 Security Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.6 Security Architecture Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.7 Cryptographic Schema and Key Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Access Control Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 Policy-Driven Security Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 Access Control Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Access Control Policy Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 XACML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 Ponder Policy Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.3 Rei Policy Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 103 106 106 107 108 109 109 111 113 114 114 115 117 117 119 120 x 7 8 Contents 6.4.4 Authorization Specification Language (ASL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.5 Obligation Specification Language (OSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.6 Privacy-Focused Policy Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.7 Capability-Based Access Control CapBAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.8 Discussion on Foundational Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 IoT Tailored Access Control Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Authorization Framework for the IoT Based on XACML . . . . 6.5.2 Usage-Based Access Control Adapted to IoT (UCON). . . . . . . 6.5.3 CapBAC in IoT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.4 ...
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