Bio Chapter 13 Clean Study Guide - Chapter 13 Section 1 RNA...

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Chapter 13 Section 1: RNADNA is the genetic material of cells. The sequence of nucleotide bases in the strands of DNA carries some sort of code. In order for that code to work, the cell must be able to understand it.What, exactly, do those bases code for? Where is the cell’s decoding system?How does RNA differ from DNA?There are three important differences between RNA and DNA: (1) the sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose, (2) RNA is generally single-stranded and not double-stranded, and (3) RNA contains uracil in place of thymine.Genes contain coded DNA instructions that tell cells how to build proteins.The first step in decoding these genetic instructions is to copy part of the base sequence from DNA into RNA.RNA, like DNA, is a nucleic acid that consists of a long chain of nucleotides.RNA then uses the base sequence copied from DNA to direct the production of proteins.Each nucleotide in both DNA and RNA is made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.There are three important differences between RNA and DNA:(1) The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose.(2) RNA is generally single-stranded and not double-stranded.(3) RNA contains uracil in place of thymine.These chemical differences make it easy for the enzymes in the cell to tell DNA and RNA apart.The roles played by DNA and RNA are similar to the master plans and blueprints usedby builders. A master plan has all the information needed to construct a building. Builders never bring a valuable master plan to the building site, where it might be damaged or lost. Instead,they prepare inexpensive, disposable copies of the master plan called blueprints.Similarly, the cell uses DNA “master plan” to prepare RNA “blueprints.”The DNA molecule stays safely in the cell’s nucleus, while RNA molecules go to the protein-building sites in the cytoplasm—the ribosomes.You can think of an RNA molecule, as a disposable copy of a segment of DNA, a working copy of a single gene.RNA has many functions, but most RNA molecules are involved in protein synthesis only.RNA controls the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Each type of RNA molecule specializes in a different aspect of this job.The three main types of RNA are messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA.Most genes contain instructions for assembling amino acids into proteins.
The RNA molecules that carry copies of these instructions are known as messenger RNA(mRNA): They carry information from DNA to other parts of the cell.Proteins are assembled on ribosomes, small organelles composed of two subunits.These ribosome subunits are made up of several ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and as many as 80 different proteins.When a protein is built, a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule transfers each amino acid to the ribosome as it is specified by the coded messages in mRNA. How does the cell make RNA?In transcription, segments of DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNAmolecules.Most of the work of making RNA takes place during transcription. During

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