Chapter 10: Mobile, Linux, and OS X Operating SystemsThe operating system (OS) controls almost all functions on a computer. In this chapter, you learn about the components, functions, andterminology related to mobile operating systems, Linux, and OS X.Open Source versus Closed SourceLike desktops and laptops, mobile devices use an operating system (OS) to run software. This chapter focuses on the two mostcommonly used mobile operating systems: Android and iOS. Android is developed by Google, and iOS is developed by Apple.Before users can analyze and modify software, they must be able to see the source code. Source code is the sequence of instructionsthat is written in human readable language, before it is turned into machine language (zeroes and ones). The source code is animportant component of free software as it allows the users to analyze and eventually modify the code. When the developer chooses toprovide the source code, the software is said to be open source. If the program’s source code is not published, the software is said tobe closed source.Android is an open source OS developed by Google. iOS is a closed source OS developed by Apple.Released in 2008 on the HTC Dream, the Android OS has been customized for use on a wide range of electronic devices. BecauseAndroid is open and customizable, programmers can use it to operate devices like laptops, smart TVs, and e-book readers. There haveeven been Android installations in devices like cameras, navigation systems, and portable media players. Figure 1 shows Androidrunning on a tablet.Released in 2007 on the first iPhone, the Apple iOS source code was not released to the public. To copy, modify or redistribute iOSrequires permission from Apple. Figure 2 shows iOS running on an iPhone.This chapter focuses on Android 5.0.1 (Lollipop) and iOS 8.4 as these were the latest versions available at the time of writing.Mobile Application DevelopmentMobile operating systems are not just stand alone products. Mobile operating systems are platforms on which other products can becreated and marketed for use on that OS. Examples of such products are mobile applications, which are simply called apps. Apps areprograms created to perform specific tasks on mobile devices. Calendars, maps, notes, and email are a few examples of appscommonly found in mobile devices.In the iOS ecosystem, apps were originally designed by Apple. Similarly, Google originally designed Android apps. When it becameclear these operating systems were actually software platforms, Apple and Google each released their own Software Development Kit(SDK). An SDK contains a number of software tools designed to allow external programs to be written for a specific software package.Developers who want to create Apple iOS apps must download and install Xcode, Apple's official integrated development environment(IDE). XCode, shown in Figure 1, can be downloaded at no cost and allows developers to write and test their iOS apps in an iPhone
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Personal digital assistant, Windows Mobile, Mobile operating system