University of AntiqueCollege of Teacher EducationGraduate StudiesSibalom, AntiqueTopic:Transfomation of Cuban ChangeThe Street and Working Children in BrazilBrazil’s Educational Reform via a Social MovementSubject: Soc.Sci Ed.102 (Socio-Cultural Foundations of Educations of Education)Discussant: Charmaine Therese P. TrainProfessor: Jocelyn C. Morales, MAEd-Soc.SciCUBACountry in the CarribeanCuba is a Caribbean island nation under communist rule. It has sugar-white beaches and is dotted withtobacco fields, which play a part in the production of the country's legendary cigars. The capital, Havana, islined with pastel houses, 1950s-era cars and Spanish-colonial architecture in the 16th-century core, OldHavana. Salsa music plays in the dance clubs and cabaret shows are performed at the famed Tropicana.Capital:HavanaPresident:Miguel Díaz-CanelCapital and largest city:Havana; 23°8′N 82°23′W / 23.133°N 82.383°WOfficial language:SpanishECONOMIC REFORMS AND THE CHANGING FACE OF CUBAN EDUCATIONHAVANA TIMES — For the first seven years of Cuba’s “reform process,” the focus of attention has been on theliberalization and restrictions of the country’s economy and politics. The social repercussions of these changes have beenstudied far less.The effects of these adjustments on sectors as crucial for the country as public (and free) education must be described ingreater detail, insists Cuban-American Carmelo Mesa Lago, recently granted a LASA life-achievement award, as part ofdeclarations made for theCuba Posible(“Possible Cuba”) project.For Mesa Lago, it is very hard to say that a defined strategy for the transformation of Cuba’s educational system exists.“The Cuban government has not made any strategy, any specific education policy, public. What we’ve seen is a reductionin social spending in the fields of education, health, pensions, welfare and housing. As Raul Castro has said on severaloccasions, so much is spent in these that they are not financially sustainable,” he argues.The academic catches sight of macroeconomic results in the policy of reducing social spending but reminds us that thereis another, dark side to this: “There have also been significant cutbacks in health: rural hospitals have been shut down, thenumber of family doctors has been reduced to half because many have been sent to Venezuela, Brazil and other countries.No cutbacks in services such as education and health can be made without adverse social results.”Such adverse results are being felt directly by Cuban families, commonly concerned with a lack of adequate resources forstudy, the number of teachers available, the physical condition of the classrooms and the quality of the education offeredin the country’s schools.