exam2_topics-1

# exam2_topics-1 - GEOG 111 Fall 2007 Outline of Topics for...

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GEOG 111 Fall 2007 Outline of Topics for Exam 2 *Material associated with the most frequently missed questions on the first exam is fair game for the second exam* Using this outline as a guide, review your notes and see if there’s anything about these topics that is unclear. Bring these questions up during class (and afterwards) on Monday. 1. Wind Wind systems o Indian monsoon o Sea-land breeze o Valley-mountain breeze (e.g., Boulder Windstorms) Factors affecting the wind o Pressure gradient force- This force wants to force the parcel to move to the lower pressure gradient. With a low pressure the wind will be going around like 45degree angles counter clockwise at the surface. The winds will also be going in towards the low. With a high it will be the opposite. The wind will be going outward and it will be clockwise. o Coriolis force- An apparent force associated with the earth’s rotation that causes moving objects to turn towards the right (left) in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere. This force wants to make the parcel move to the east. This is because the earth is moving and it tries to make the parcel move in the same direction in the earth. o Geostrophic wind (and the geostrophic adjustment process)- Winds above the earth’s surface produce a resistance that slows the wind down. o Friction (and its variation over different land surfaces)- features on the earth’s surface produce a resistance that slows the wind down. This acts opposite the surface winds. This will only be at the surface because there is no friction with the ground at 500mb Gust factor is the variation in wind speed per unit time. As friction increases wind speed decreases and the gust factor goes up Wind fetch- the distance over which wind can move unchanged As fetch increases, wind speed increases and gust factor decreases o Wind speed through a mountain pass (constriction of flow) o Directional components to the forces acting on air parcels at 500 mb and at the surface Wind around a surface cyclone and anticyclone (see practice problems on Blackboard) 2. Water in the atmosphere Hydrological cycle- the cycle that water goes thru to be a solid liquid and a gas. This is unique to the earth and no other planets have it (that we know of). Three phases of water- o solid o liquid o Vapor Importance of water in the atmosphere- o The latent energy in the phase changes of water is an important source of energy.

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o Water vapor is the source of all clouds and precipitation. o The amount of water vapor also determines the rate of evaporation. o Water vapor is also one of the principal absorbers of longwave radiation. Phase changes o Evaporation- gains 600 cal energy When it cools off right before it rains.
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• Spring '08
• Water vapor, fog

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