1Chapter 9: Foundations of Group Behavior**These notes are used to clarify key topics and point you to issues to consider as you go through the textbook. You are responsible for covering the textbook, this chapter outline, and supporting articles or videos in the Modules.**LEARNING OBJECTIVESAfter studying this chapter, students should be able to:Distinguish between the different types of groups.Describe the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development.Show how role requirements change in different situations.Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.Show how status and size differences affect group performance.Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for groupeffectiveness.CHAPTER OUTLINEI.Defining and Classifying GroupsA.Definition1.A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, whohave come together to achieve particular objectives.-There are three important defining characteristics of a group: 1) the existence of common activities, 2) the existence of interactions, and 3) the existence of asense of belonging.oCommon activities: the people must be assembled to pursue a commongoal. They must share a common activity or task. They have a common interest or need!oInteractions: The people must have contact with each other. They must have voluntary interactions and two-way communications.oSense of Belonging: People must be convinced that they are part ofsomething bigger. They must believe that they share their values, norms, attitudes, and expectations and that the other people will bethere for them.A group is only a group if they possess all three characteristics!2.Groups can be either formal or informal.
a.Formal groups—those defined by the organization’s structure, with designatedwork assignments establishing tasks.b.Informal groups—alliances that are neither formally structured nororganizationally determined.B.Social Identity1.Our tendency to take personal pride or offense for the accomplishments of a group isthe territory of social identity theory.2.Social identity theory proposes that people have emotional reactions to the failure orsuccess of their group because their self-esteem gets tied into the performance of thegroup.3.Social identities help us understand who we are and where we fit in with other people,but they can have a negative side as well.C.Ingroups and Outgroups1.Ingroup favoritism occurs when we see members of our group as better than otherpeople, and people not in our group as all the same.2.Recent research suggests that people with low openness and/or low agreeableness aremore susceptible to ingroup favoritism.3.Whenever there is an ingroup, there is, by necessity, an outgroup, which is sometimes everyone else, but is usually an identified group known by the ingroup’smembers.
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Sociology, Group development, B. Group, Group Outcomes, Group Property, Foundations of Group Behavior