AP World Study Notes Neolithic Revolution (8000 BCE- 3500 BCE) ● AP World History begins ● Domestication of plants ○ Jared Diamond's article "The Worst Mistake in Human History" ○ First wheat in the Middle East ○ Rice in East and Southeast Asia ○ Yams in West Africa ○ Maize in the Americas ○ Tarot roots in New Guinea ● Domestication of animals ○ Horses, cows, sheep, pigs, goats in Afro-Eurasia ○ Llama only large domesticated animal of the Americas ● Early settlements not "civilizations" ○ Jericho and Catal Huyuk ● Domestication of plants and animals leads to a food surplus ● Food surplus leads to a specialization of labor creating: ○ Religion, writing, artisans and goods, merchants and trade, architectural advances, military and improved technologies (Ex. Wheel (3500 BCE), plow, iron) ● Iron metallurgy ○ Bronze Age (3000 BCE) ○ Iron Age (1300 BCE) ● Theme 1 (Interaction between humans and environment) seen with farming and irrigation ● Theme 2 (Development and interaction between cultures) seen as Indus and Mesopotamians trade ● Americas develop in isolation ● As “civilizations” progress, the status of women falls sharply! Ancient River Civilizations (3500 BCE- 600 BCE) ● Mesopotamia ○ Highlights include: ■ Epic of Gilgamesh ■ Cuneiform ■ Polytheistic ■ City states make them not as centralized ■ Development of the wheel ○ Hammurabi’s code shows strict laws and social stratification ○ Diffusion of iron/Hittites ● Egypt ○ Highlights include: ■ Hieroglyphics
■ Godlike power of the pharaoh ■ Highly centralized ■ Pyramids ■ Social stratification with priests and slaves ■ Polytheistic ○ Old Kingdom (Menes, pyramids) Middle Kingdom (Nubians) New Kingdom (Egypt becomes more expansionistic) ○ Gave more rights to women than other civilizations (Ex. Queen Hatshepsut) ● Indus River Valley ○ Highlights include: ■ Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro (Pakistan) ■ Indoor plumbing ■ Writing (not decoded yet) ■ Social stratifications (priests, better houses) ■ Seals show trade with Mesopotamia ○ Aryans: Indo Europeans invade, Vedas form the basis of Hinduism, caste system becomes embedded in Indian culture (Warriors, priests, merchants and workers) ● China ○ Shang Dynasty (Oracle bones, bronze weapons, dynastic cycles) ○ Zhou Dynasty ■ Mandate of Heaven used to justify rebellions ■ Longest lasting Chinese dynasty ● Exceptions to the river valley rule: ○ Chavin (Peru) and Olmec (Central America) ● Noteworthy groups of Period 1 (8000 BCE-600 BCE) ○ Indo European migrations (central Asia, horses, language) ○ Bantu migrations ■ Sub-Saharan Africa, impact on language, farming, iron technology ○ Hebrews ■ Monotheism, Abraham, covenant with God ○ Phoenicians ■ 22 letter alphabet ● Religions: ○ Animism (spirits reside in ordinary objects) ■ Africa, North America, Central Asia ○ Hinduism ○ Judaism ○ Zoroastrianism
■ Teachings of Zoroaster or Zarathustra, Persia, good and evil ● Big Picture Review ○
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