Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects - School of Architecture ( PDFDrive.com ).pdf - Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects Volume 1

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Unformatted text preview: Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects Volume 1 Volume 2 Theory and Background Management 8 Click here to continue The Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects 1999 Edition National Practice Program for the Profession of Architecture in Canada The National Practice Program (NPP) is an alliance of the ten provincial associations of architecture and the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC). This Handbook has been developed by the NPP on behalf of the architectural profession in Canada, represented by these member associations: Architectural Institute of British Columbia Alberta Association of Architects Saskatchewan Association of Architects Manitoba Association of Architects Ontario Association of Architects Ordre des architectes du Québec Architects’ Association of New Brunswick Association des architectes du Nouveau-Brunswick Nova Scotia Association of Architects Architects Association of Prince Edward Island Newfoundland Association of Architects and The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada Editorial Board John Bobaljik, OAA, FRAIC Pierre Corriveau, OAQ Michael Kohler, FRAIC Terry Mager, MAIBC, MRAIC Robert Ojolick, NSAA, MRAIC Paul-André Tétreault, OAQ, FIRAC Andrew Wach, MAA Editor-in-Chief Jon Hobbs, OAA, MRAIC Managing Editor Jim Young Senior English Editor Anthony Butler, OAA, FRAIC Senior French Editor Gilbert Paré, OAQ Graphic Design Aerographics Creative Services Inc. Printing Beauregard Printers ©1999 Members of the National Practice Program: The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada and the Ten Provincial Associations of Architects This Handbook may not be copied in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, except for the forms, lists, and checklists which may be copied only by architects who are registered recipients or paid subscribers of the Handbook and who use the copies for the practice of architecture, all of which are subject to the following disclaimer. Disclaimer The National Practice Program (NPP) supports the development and maintenance of the Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects; however, neither the NPP nor the Editorial Board, nor the Editors take responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of any information or its fitness for any particular purpose. The Handbook describes procedures for general practice only; there are exceptions and differences for specific circumstances. Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects The National Practice Program gratefully acknowledges the following organizations which supported the development of the Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects: Sponsors Contributor Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects Ta b l e of Contents Introduction Volume 2 Management Acknowledgements 2.1 Management of the Practice Photo Credits Index Index of Lists, Checklists, and Charts Volume 1 Theory and Background 1.1 The Architectural Profession 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 The Architect as a Professional Professional Conduct and Ethics Admission to the Profession The Organization of the Profession in Canada International Architectural Organizations The Role of the Architect 1.2 The Construction Industry 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 The Construction Industry The Client and Users Consultants Building Regulations and Authorities Having Jurisdiction Standards Organizations, Certification and Testing Agencies, and Trade Associations 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.1.9 2.1.10 Organization of an Architectural Practice Succession Planning Public Relations and Marketing Financial Management Office Administration Communications Human Resources Quality Management Risk Management and Professional Liability Architectural Services and Fees 2.2 Standard Forms for the Management of the Practice - Guide to the Use of the Forms - Forms 2.3 Management of the Project 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 2.3.11 2.3.12 Management of the Project Types of Construction Project Delivery Cost Planning and Control Pre-design Schematic Design Design Development Construction Documents — Drawings Construction Documents — Specifications Construction Procurement Contract Administration — Office Functions Contract Administration — Field Functions Take-over Procedures, Commissioning, and Post-occupancy Evaluations 2.4 Standard Forms for the Management of the Project - Guide to the Use of the Forms - Forms Introduction The practice of architecture requires a wide range of professional skills. These include: the knowledge and skill to design buildings; a thorough understanding of sound and economical construction; proficiency in the application of business and legal principles; and the ability to motivate, coordinate, and manage a complex group of participants. The architect must be designer, construction expert, and manager. It is hoped that this new edition of the Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects will contribute to improving the practice of architecture and, consequently, help to improve the built environment and architecture in Canada. The Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects is the result of a great collaborative effort by the architectural profession from every region of the country. This edition has been developed and published in both official languages. Objectives of the Canadian Handbook of Practice The Handbook is for practising architects and those who plan on becoming architects. With these users in mind, the Handbook’s objectives are to: • provide an instructional resource book for architectural students and intern architects; • establish a reference document to assist architects in Canada by providing concise and current information. The Handbook includes information and advice, in the form of summaries, lists, checklists, charts, and sample documents, as well as sources of additional reference material. History In March of 1974, the Ontario Association of Architects (OAA) initiated the production of a Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects, specifically tailored to Canadian architectural practice. J. Hugh Westren, the Editor of the first edition, was commissioned in June 1974 to start work on a Handbook of national scope. The first edition was published in 1976. In the early 1990s, some revisions were made to a few sections of the Handbook. Many of these revisions were reprinted from information provided by The American Institute of Architects. In January of 1997, the National Practice Program — an alliance of the ten provincial associations of architects and the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada — appointed a national Editorial Board to direct the creation of a new, updated edition of the Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects. The National Practice Program approved a business plan for this venture in June of 1998 with the development costs being underwritten by every provincial association of architects. Editors were appointed, and the writing and editing of this new edition commenced in the fall of 1998. Format Volume 1 Theory and Background Volume 1 is an overview of the architectural profession and architectural practice. The 11 chapters in this section provide theory and background information to the architectural profession and an introduction to the business and professional environment in which an architect works. Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects September 1999 Volume 2 Management Volume 2 is divided into two sections: Management of the Practice and Management of the Project. Each of the 22 chapters contains instructional and descriptive information as well as checklists and some sample forms for the practitioner to use and modify. The forms are also provided in electronic format on a 3-1/2 inch computer disk. Additional forms are provided in CCDC 24: A Guide to Model Forms and Support Documents contained in Volume 3. Volume 1 and Volume 2 are also provided in electronic format on a CD-ROM. Volume 3 Other Resources Volume 3 contains standard documents used by the profession and the construction industry in Canada. For reference purposes, the user should obtain and insert all relevant documents which are not provided. In addition, tabs have been provided to permit users to insert information supplied by the provincial associations of architects and the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, as well as other relevant reference material. Order forms for other resource material have been included. Improving the Handbook Our profession and society as a whole are experiencing a rapid rate of change; as a result, the Handbook will require constant revision and improvement. Your suggestions about information which should be added, or existing material which should be revised, are welcome. Written suggestions and comments should be addressed to: The National Practice Program c/o The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada 55 Murray Street, Suite 330 Ottawa, Ontario K1N 5M3 Updating the Handbook The National Practice Program intends to issue regular updates to the Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects by subscription. Details of the subscription program will be described in future bulletins and newsletters of the provincial associations of architects and the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada. Thank You’s I would like to thank everyone who contributed to this Handbook, including all of the many writers. The members of the Editorial Board, who were frequently asked to review great volumes of text at short notice, are to be congratulated for providing insightful comments and suggestions. I also want to thank Tony Butler, Senior English Editor, who reviewed the chapters for correct architectural practice and procedures, and Gilbert Paré, Senior French Editor, who not only kept us informed about the distinctions of architectural practice in Québec but also translated much of the Handbook into French. Finally, I would like to thank the tremendous effort and dedication of the Managing Editor, Jim Young, whose skills as a journalist, writer, and publications manager contributed to the timeliness and success of this publication. It has been an honour to be a part of this team. Jon Hobbs, OAA, MRAIC Editor-in-Chief September 1999 Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects Acknowledgements The members of the National Practice Program gratefully acknowledge the following individuals who have contributed to the creation of the Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects: Thomas Emodi, B.Arch., M.E.S., NSAA, RAIC, is principal of Thomas Emodi: Architect operating in Canada and Australia, and a professor and the Dean of Faculty of Architecture at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Douglas K. Allen, B.Arch., OAA, FRAIC, is a partner in Allen & Sherriff, Inc. with offices in Richmond Hill, Ontario and Mississauga, Ontario. Michael A. Ernest, MAIBC, is the Director of Professional Services of the Architectural Institute of British Columbia. Gordon Archibald is a lawyer and an associate at NelliganPower, in Ottawa, Ontario, practising in the area of business law with special emphasis on the needs of technology companies. Martin Gerskup, B.Arch., OAA, MRAIC, is principal of the building science firm, Best Consultants, and sole practitioner, Martin Gerskup Architect, based in Richmond Hill, Ontario. John Bobaljik, B.Arch., OAA, FRAIC, is the Practice Advisor at the Ontario Association of Architects, in Toronto, Ontario. Daniel B. Goodspeed, B.Arch., NSAA, MRAIC, is a partner in Kassner/Goodspeed Architects, based in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Paule Boutin, B.Arch., OAQ, is a sole practitioner based in Montréal, Québec. Charles Hazell, B.Arch., OAA, is a partner at Taylor/Hazell Architects Ltd. (1992), Architects and Restoration Consultants, in Toronto, Ontario. Anthony Butler, B.Arch., OAA, FRAIC, is a sole practitioner based in Hamilton, Ontario. Richard Coulombe, B.Arch., M.Sc., OAQ, MPMI, is an architect and project management professional in Scéno Plus (experts in theatre and entertainment projects) in Montréal, Québec and also is a consultant in project management. John G. Davies, B.Arch., C.Arb., OAA, MRAIC, is President of John G. Davies, Architect, Incorporated, based in Ottawa, Ontario. Peter Dobbing, B.Arch., MRAIC, FCSC, RSW, is a retired architect and a Life Member of Construction Specifications Canada, in Ottawa, Ontario. Lloyd A. Hilgers, B.A., M.Arch., MBA, OAA, MRAIC, is a partner in Murphy Hilgers Architects Inc. of Toronto, Ontario. Jon Hobbs, B.Arch., M.Pl., OAA, MRAIC, is currently the Advisor, Professional Services, for the National Practice Program and the Committee of Canadian Architectural Councils, in Ottawa, Ontario. François Hogue, B.Arch., M.Sc., is a staff architect with Desnoyers Mercure & associés based in Montréal, Québec. Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects September 1999 Allen N. Humphries, B.E.S., B.Arch., OAA, is an employee of Webb Zerafa Menkès Housden Partnership in Toronto, Ontario and owner of Aleph 5, a consulting company. Robert Lacoste, B.Arch., OAQ, MRAIC, is a partner in the firm Fichten Soiferman et Associés, architectes in Montréal, Québec. Rick Linley, M.Arch., MAA, MRAIC, PMP, is a principal and Quality System Manager with Smith Carter Architects and Engineers Incorporated, in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Terry Mager, MAIBC, MRAIC, is a director in Pacific Architectural Group Inc., in Vancouver, British Columbia. Vivian Manasc, MBA, MRAIC, is principal of Manasc Isaac Architects and is Adjunct Assistant Professor of Architecture at the University of Calgary. Dorothy Mazeau, OAA, MRAIC, is President of Allen Mazeau Associates, in Bolton, Ontario, a firm offering development services, with a focus on community development. Robert J. McCrea, B.Arch., OAA, FRAIC, is a sole practitioner based in Toronto, Ontario. Peter McLaren, B.Arch., OAA, MRAIC, is a shareholder and associate principal of Dunlop Farrow Inc. Architects and is based in the DFA Toronto office. David Molyneux, D.Arch., RIBA, OAA, works as a development consultant with CB Richard Ellis and also provides design-build services as David Molyneux Architect, in Toronto, Ontario. John A. Neilson, MAIBC, FRAIC, is principal of John A. Neilson Architects Inc., Victoria, British Columbia and Past President (1998-99) of the Architectural Institute of British Columbia. David Northcote, B.E.S., B.Arch., OAA, MRAIC, is a senior associate in Reich + Petch Architects Inc. based in Toronto, Ontario and a Vice President of Reich + Petch Design International with offices in Toronto, Ontario and London, England. Robert Northcott, B.Arch., NSAA, is a partner in Lydon Lynch Architects Limited based in Halifax, Nova Scotia. September 1999 Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects Hershel B. Okun, B.Arch., OAA, MRAIC, is a sole practitioner and President of Okun Architect Inc., in Toronto, Ontario. Richard O’Reilly is a lawyer and a partner at NelliganPower, in Ottawa, Ontario, practising in the areas of business law and commercial real estate. Gilbert Paré, M.Arch., OAQ, is a sole practitioner in Montréal, Québec, specializing in architectural translation and writing. Stephen F. Pope, B.E.S., B.Arch., OAA, MRAIC, is a sole practitioner in Ottawa, Ontario. Jak G.P. Redenbach, B.Sc., B.Arch., MAIBC, MRAIC, AIA (Associate), practises architecture in Vancouver, British Columbia. Roger Bruno Richard, B.A., B.Arch., M.Arch., OAQ, MRAIC, is Associate Professor and Director of the École d’architecture at the Université de Montréal in Montréal, Québec. N. Gerald Rolfsen, B.Arch., M.Arch., D.Arch., MAIBC, FRAIC, is a principal in the consulting firm, The APRA Group Inc., in Vancouver, British Columbia. Manfred Schulz, B.E.S., MBA, CMA, is the Chief Operating Officer for GBR Architects Limited in Winnipeg, Manitoba. J. Brian Sim, B.A. (Hons), B.Arch., MAIBC, FRAIC, HON. FAIA, HON. FCARM, is a principal of Tielker Sim & Associates, Architecture, Planning and Interior Design in Vancouver, British Columbia. Jean-Luc Vadeboncoeur, B.Arch., OAQ, is a project manager and head of design studio at Les architectes Dupuis Dubuc et associés, in Montréal, Québec. Grant Van Iderstine, B.Arch., MAA, MRAIC, is a principal with Smith Carter Architects and Engineers Incorporated, a multi-disciplinary A/E firm based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. John R. White, B.E.S., M.Arch., MAA, MRAIC, works as a senior architect with Public Works and Government Services Canada providing in-house architectural services to Parks Canada, in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Photo Credits Photo Credits The following photographs of details of buildings or “building fragments” have been used throughout this Handbook. Architect: A.J. Diamond, Donald Schmitt and Company, Architects Building: Richmond Hill Central Library Photographer: Steven Evans Architect: Building: Annie Lebel, architecte Stéphane Pratte, architecte Zone Architect: Arthur Erickson, Architect Building: Roy Thomson Hall Photographer: Corel Stock Photo Library Architect: Brian MacKay-Lyons Architecture + Urban Design Building: House on the Nova Scotia Coast Photographer: Jamie Steeves Architect: Busby + Associates Architects Building: Revenue Canada Office Building Photographer: Martin Tessler Architect: Douglas J. Cardinal, Architect and Tétreault, Parent, Languedoc et Associés Building: Canadian Museum of Civilization Photographer: Corel Stock Photo Library Architect: Building: Florian Maurer Architect Ltd. Tr’ondek Hwech’in Cultural Centre Photographer: Florian Maurer Architect Ltd. Architect: Hughes Baldwin, Architects Building: Renfrew Branch Library Photographer: Gary Otte Architect: Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects Building: Kitchener City Hall & Civic Square Photographer: Steven Evans Architect: Architect: Cormier, Cohen, Davies architectes (Atelier Big City) Building: Parc de l’aventure basque en Amérique Photographer: Big City Architect: Building: Dan S. Hanganu, Architects Pavillon de design, Université du Québec à Montréal Photographer: Michel Brunelle Architect: Darling and Pearson, Architects Building: Canadian Bank of Commerce Photographer: Corel Stock Photo Library Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects Building: Grand Valley Institution for Women Photographer: Steven Evans Architect: Building: Larry McFarland Architects Limited First Nations Longhouse, University of British Columbia Photographer: Steven Evans; Malak Photographs Ltd. Architect: Levitt Goodman Architects Ltd. Building: Strachan House Photographer: Robert Burley / Design Archive Canadian Handbook of Practice for Architects September 1999 Photo Credits Architect: Building: Architect: Building: MacFawn and Rogers Architects Limited HMCS Sackville Interpretation Centre MacLennan Jaunkalns Miller Architects Limited Rotary Park Pool Montgomery and Sisam Architects Humber River Bicycle Pedestrian Bridge Photographer: Design Archive / Robert Burley Architect: Peter Cardew Architect Building: Odium Drive Live-Work Studios Photographer: Peter Cardew Architect Architect: Building: Saia et Barbarese architectes Centre Sportif de la Petite-Bourgogne Photographer: Michel Brunelle Architect: Building: Architect: Building: Architect: Architect: Saucier + Perrotte architectes Building: La Cinémathèque québécoise Photographer: Éric Piché Moshe Safdie; Associate Architects: David, Barott, Boulva Building: Habitat ’67 Photographer: Corel Stock Photo Library Moshe Safdie in joint venture with Parkins Partnership; Associate Architects: Desnoyers, Mercure Building: National Gallery of Canada Photographer: Corel Stock Photo Library Saucier + Perrotte, architectes Résidence Mercille Architect: Shim-Sutcliffe Architects Building: Ledbury Park Photographer: James Dow, Michael Awad Architect: Architect: Osburn Cotnam Associates, Architects in joint venture with Dunlop Farrow Aitken Cansfield Inc. Architects (now Osburn Cotnam Belair Architects); Dunlop Farrow Inc. Architects Building: Minis...
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