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KASAYSAYAN 1 – LONG EXAM #1 What is History? vEtymology ØGreek: “historia”, knowledge based on inquiry or investigationØ6th-9thcentury: accounts of past eventsØ14thcentury: Ibn Khaldun’s Al Muqaddimah(Introduction to Social Sciences); societal changesØ19thcentury: Dr. Jose Rizal àachievements•Wanted Filipinos to feel deserving of Spanish citizenship and attain equality between them; propagandisticvDefinition/Characteristics A.It is a narrative of past events 1)History ≠Past:only deals with the relevant 2)Has 3 elements: 3)History ≠ChronicleØHistory pertains to connections; chronicle pertains to chronology (sequencing of events) 4)History has NO finality ØNew information or sources can be found ØNew interpretations to past events B.It is a discipline/branch of knowledge 1)Relevant 2)Objective: sources; scientific in nature3)Subjective: has varying interpretations; bias, prejudice, propaganda, different points of view and experiences; selection of data and sources4)Growing/Evolving ØHistoriography:history of history-writing ØTraditional(Pre-20thcentury) •Elite-centric •Focus:politics, economy, diplomacy •Method:POSITIVISM(Auguste Comte)"Knowledge can only be acquired/obtained through tangible sources"Leopolde von Ranke: written documents "Charles Seignobos and Charles Victor Langlois:no documents ≠no history ØNew History/Nouvelle Historie(1920) •Annales School(School of Historians) •Focus:society and culture, historie de mentalities (history of mentalities), rural, women "The Royal Touchby Marc Bloch: discusses how people thought royals could heal ailments by touch "The Mediterraneanby Fernand Braudel: cultural history "The Birth of Purgatoryby Jacques Le Goff: people were afraid of going to hell so they made up purgatory •Method:oral history methodology, artifacts (man-made), fossils (organic), folklore "Interdisciplinary and Social Sciences: new sources, new perspectives and concepts "‘History from below’: source from Annales vHistorical Models:illustrates flow and progress of events vHistorical Sources (Batis Pangkasaysayan) A.According to FormB.According to ImportancePeopleTimePlaceLinear Model• Has a definite start and end point•Fatalistic/providential: heavily influenced by the Judeo-Christian movement (the Bible)Cyclical Model•“History repeats itself”•Contradicts characteristic of history which states that history has 3 elements:time, place, and people. Time is the element that cannot repeatSpiral Model• Argues that time does notrepeat• Instead, there is an occurrence of similarities,not repetitions (orange: similarities)Chaotic View: no patternWritten/Published•Written/Published: archival (sinupan); e.g.