Final Exam Study Guide - 1 Intro generally an elderly...

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Intro - generally an elderly female - assemble at night - posses familiars (spirits) --- usually small animals - **a witch is never witch in the abstract o every culture has a different definition o can’t define a witch until you define the culture around it generally goes against the norm of her society/ the inverse of what the community finds acceptable Magic (as a practice) - magic is something physically done vs. witchcraft which isn’t necessarily physical - James George Frazer o Responsible for the anthropological understanding of magic o Attempted to explain how much and magic worked throughout the world o Believed that magic was related to science (Magic --- Science --- Religion) Magic involved the command of invisible powers Religion – had to ask for the invisible powers, do not command them Science – attempt to achieve something, just like magic does o More interested in the process of magic than its outcome o Sympathetic Magic – Homeopathic vs. Contagious Homeopathic --- imitative, like- produces- like, effect resembles its cause, ex) stirring water to create a storm Contagious --- physical contact necessary, things that were at one time connected stay connected even upon separation, ex) using a person’s hair in a spell - Bronislaw Malinowski o studied in New Guinea o concluded that there was a connection between magic and technology o **When technology fails, magic comes in ex) the fishing boats only use magic for protection when they have to go farther out than the fisherman are comfortable with - E. Evans Pritchard o One of the first anthropologists who studied witchcraft o Worked with the Azande o Mangu (witchcraft) was internal/ hereditary, and the witch was not conscious of his/ her powers until an autopsy o Ngwa (magic) --- counter to witchcraft o Magic, witchcraft and the oracle If WITCHCRAFT is detected, and ORACLE is consulted, and action is taken with MAGIC o use witchcraft to explain social misfortune closed system --- no way a member of the society could explain misfortune outside of the witchcraft system (no other possible explanation) o “Witchcraft Among the Azande” the tribe practices Christianity, but it does not provide a practical explanation for things the way witchcraft does no such thing as an accident hierarchy of oracles --- Termite Oracle, Rubbing Boards, Benge (poison oracle), (consulted in cases of adultery, hunting, sickness, etc.) - Marwick o Developed the “ social strain gauge” explanation Accusations of witchcraft are more prevalent in societies with high stress levels and/or strenuous situations - Firth o Wrote about the Adanze and Maori o Productive protective vs. destructive magic Prod. Prot. --- imaginary practice (witch) Destr. --- performed rituals (magic) Ancient Greece - mageia --- magic o the are and practice of a magos Priests at a royal court, responsible for all types of royal sacrifice, funeral rites, dream interpretations 1
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Originally positive, turned negative in 3 rd and 4 th centuries - Plato o “The Republic” o beggar priests
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