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Unformatted text preview: Intro- generally an elderly female- assemble at night- posses familiars (spirits) --- usually small animals- **a witch is never witch in the abstract o every culture has a different definition o cant define a witch until you define the culture around it generally goes against the norm of her society/ the inverse of what the community finds acceptable Magic (as a practice)- magic is something physically done vs. witchcraft which isnt necessarily physical- James George Frazer o Responsible for the anthropological understanding of magic o Attempted to explain how much and magic worked throughout the world o Believed that magic was related to science (Magic --- Science --- Religion) Magic involved the command of invisible powers Religion had to ask for the invisible powers, do not command them Science attempt to achieve something, just like magic does o More interested in the process of magic than its outcome o Sympathetic Magic Homeopathic vs. Contagious Homeopathic --- imitative, like- produces- like, effect resembles its cause, ex) stirring water to create a storm Contagious --- physical contact necessary, things that were at one time connected stay connected even upon separation, ex) using a persons hair in a spell- Bronislaw Malinowski o studied in New Guinea o concluded that there was a connection between magic and technology o **When technology fails, magic comes in ex) the fishing boats only use magic for protection when they have to go farther out than the fisherman are comfortable with- E. Evans Pritchard o One of the first anthropologists who studied witchcraft o Worked with the Azande o Mangu (witchcraft) was internal/ hereditary, and the witch was not conscious of his/ her powers until an autopsy o Ngwa (magic) --- counter to witchcraft o Magic, witchcraft and the oracle If WITCHCRAFT is detected, and ORACLE is consulted, and action is taken with MAGIC o use witchcraft to explain social misfortune closed system--- no way a member of the society could explain misfortune outside of the witchcraft system (no other possible explanation) o Witchcraft Among the Azande the tribe practices Christianity, but it does not provide a practical explanation for things the way witchcraft does no such thing as an accident hierarchy of oracles --- Termite Oracle, Rubbing Boards, Benge (poison oracle), (consulted in cases of adultery, hunting, sickness, etc.)- Marwick o Developed the social strain gauge explanation Accusations of witchcraft are more prevalent in societies with high stress levels and/or strenuous situations- Firth o Wrote about the Adanze and Maori o Productive protective vs. destructive magic Prod. Prot. --- imaginary practice (witch) Destr. --- performed rituals (magic) Ancient Greece- mageia --- magic o the are and practice of a magos Priests at a royal court, responsible for all types of royal sacrifice, funeral rites, dream interpretations 1...
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